ErringtonJ

 

Sgt. Joe Philip Errington


Born: 27 August 1918 - Compton, California

     - family also resided in San Antonio, California

Parents: John Errington & Jenny Alice Thomas-Errington

Siblings: 2 sisters, 5 brothers

    - His brother, Richard, was also in the California National Guard

Hometown: 213 Maple Street - Salinas, California

Occupation: butcher - family meat packing business

Inducted:

    - 10 February 1941

       - Salinas Army Airfield

Training: 

    - Fort Lewis, Washington

        - C Company, 194th Tank Battalion
Note:  The decision for this move - which had been made on August 15, 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.  Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - rode train to Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
        - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 6 September 1941
    - ferried on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe to Angel Island
        - given physicals and inoculated by battalion's medical detachment
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and attached turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.
    - Stationed:
        - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
            - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
            - 1 December 1941
                - tanks ordered to perimeter of Clark Field
                - 194th guarded north end of airfield with 192nd guarding south portion
                - two crew members of each tank and half-track remained with vehicle at all times
                    - meals served by food trucks
                - those not assigned to a tank or half-track remained at command post 
Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
                - lived Japanese attack on Clark Field
                - planes did not go after tanks
                - after attack 194th sent to a bivouac three kilometers north of Clark Field
                    - from there they were sent to Barrio of San Joaquin on the Malolus Road
            - 12 December 1941
                - moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
                    - arrived 6:00 A.M.
                - C Company ordered to Southern Luzon
        - 15 December 1941
            - C Company holding Tagaytay Bridge - South Luzon
            - spent most of time chasing down Fifth Columnists
            - 24 December 1941
                - company moved over Taal Road to Santo Tomas
                    - bivouacked near San Paolo
        -25 December 1941
            - sent to assist in operations around Lucena, Paglibo, and Lucban
        - 26/27 December 1941
            - defended in Southern Luzon near Lucban
            - supported Philippine Army
        - 29/30 December 1941
            - new line at Bamban River established
            - tank battalions held line until ordered to withdraw
        - 30 December 1941
                - at Becaue covered withdraw of Philippine Divisions
                - it was around this time that the company rejoined the battalion
        - 2 January 1942
            - both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
            - 194th withdrew there on Highway 7
        - 5 January 1942
            - rejoined rest of 194th at Guagua
            - took position on the road between Sasmuan and Lubao with five SPMs
            - ambushed a Japanese force of 750 to 800 attempting to cut the highway
            - Japanese lost half their force
            - Labao was burning when tanks left area 
        - 6 January1942
            - Remedios new defensive line established along dry creek bed
                - 1:50 A.M. - Japanese attempted to infiltrate line
                    - bright moon made them easy to see
                    - tanks opened up on them
                    - Japanese laid down smoke which blew back into them       
                - 3:00 A.M.
                    - Japanese broke off attack            
        - 6/7 January 1942 - tank battalions withdraw across bridge at Culis Creek at night
                - 194th withdraw across bridge covered by 192nd
                - bridge destroyed after 192nd crossed bridge         
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
            - January 1942
                - tank companies reduced to three tanks per platoon
It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
        - 8 January 1942
            - composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
                - their job was to keep the East Road open  north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main

                  battle line had been formed
            - remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                - tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
                - tanks also needed overdue maintenance
                - 17th Ordnance
            - all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
            - three per tank platoon
            - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw
            - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
            - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
            - mission abandoned
            - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
        - 12 January 1942
            - C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
                - forward position with little alert time
        - 13 January 1942
            - mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
            - returned to battalion
        - 16 January 1942 - Bagac
            - sent to open Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could move south
            - at the Moron Road and Road Junction 59 the tanks moved forward knocking out an anti-tank gun
            - two tanks were lost to landmines but towed out
                - mission abandoned
                - Segunda's forces escaped along beach losing its heavy equipment
        - 20 January 1942
            -west of Bani Bani Road - tanks were sent to save the 31st Infantry command post
        - 24 January 1942
            - tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
                 - landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching road
        - 26 January 1942
            - battalion holding a position a kilometer north of Pilar-Bagac Road
                - four SPMs with the battalion
                - 9:45 A.M. - warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
                -  when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
                    - estimated they lost 500 of 1800 men
                - 10:30 A.M. - Japanese withdrew from area
                    - prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
            - 28 January 1942
                - 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
                - guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
                - half-tracks patrolled roads
                    - maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrols
        - March 1942
                - two tanks were bogged down in mud
                - the tankers were working to get them out
                - Japanese Regiment entered the area
                - Lt. Col. Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point blank range
                    - Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
                - wiped out Japanese regiment
                - gasoline rations cut to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
               - Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that one platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor
                    - Wainwright rejected idea
                - April 1942
                    - tanks sent into various sectors in attempt to stop Japanese advance
        - 4 April 1942
            - Japanese launched major offensive
            - tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
        - 6 April 1942
            - four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
                - one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at junction of Trails 8 & 6
                - other tanks covered withdraw
            - 3rd Platoon sent up west coast road
                - near Mount Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
                - the tanks withdrew to Marivales
        - 8 April 1942
            - fighting on East Coast Road at Cabcaban

It was at this time that the tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result the massacre of 6000 sick or wounded
              and 40,000 civilians

            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan
Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - received order to destroy equipment and report to kilometer marker 168.2.
            - Provisional Tank Group Headquarters
        - Japanese officers told Col. Ernest Miller to keep them there until ordered to move
    - 10 April 1942
            - 7:00 P.M. - started march from Provisional Tank Group headquarters
            - 3:00 A.M. - halted and rested for an hour
            - 4:00 A.M. - resume march
                - at times slipped on remains of dead who had been killed by Japanese shelling
    - 11 April 1942
        - 8:00 A.M. -reached Lamao
            - allowed to forage for food
        - 9:00 A.M. - resumed march
        - Noon - reached Limay and main road
            - officers, majors and up, separated from lower ranking officers and enlisted men
            - lower ranking officers and enlisted men joined main march
    - Death March
        - marched through Abucay and Samal
        -  reached Orani
            - herded into a fenced in area and ordered to lie down
            - in morning found they had been lying in human waste
            - latrine in one corner was crawling with maggots
        - form 100 men detachments
            - POWs marched at faster pace
            - fewer breaks
                - when given break, the POWs sat on road
        - North of Hermosa the POWs reached pavement
            - made march easier
        - POWs given an hour rest on road
            - those who attempt to lay down are jabbed with bayonets
            - POWs march through Layac and Lurao
            - rains - POWs drank as much as they could
        - San Fernando
            - POWs put in groups of 200 to be fed
                - one POW sent to get a box of rice for each group
                - pottery jars of water given out the same way
        - POWs formed detachments of 100 men and marched to train station
            - POWs put into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
        - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars
            - as POWs formed ranks, Filipinos threw sugarcane to POWs
            - also gave them water
            - POWs walked last 8 kilometers to Camp O'Donnell

POW Camps:

    - Philippine Islands

        - Camp O'Donnell

            - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp - 1 April 1942
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours
                      for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp
              commandant, Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter

                 - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                 - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                 - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria

        - Bridge Building Detail
            - volunteered to go out on detail, with his brother, to get out of Camp O'Donnell
            - POWs rebuilt bridges destroyed during retreat into Bataan

            - detachment of 250 POWs taken to Calauan

                - POWs broken into smaller detachments and sent to other barrios

                - Joe remained at Calauan with his brother

                - POWs built a wooden bridge to replace the bridge that had been destroyed

            - POWs moved to Batangas - 1 July 1942

                - rebuilt wooden bridge there

            - Candelaria

                - POWs repaired a concrete bridge
            - detail ended in September 1942
            - POWs sent to Cabantuan

        - Cabanatuan

            - original name - Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                - put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
                    - Camp 2:  two miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                            - POWs later moved to Camp 1
            - Camp 1:
                - "Blood Brother" rule implemented
                    - if one POW in the group of 10 escaped, the other nine would be killed
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                - Barracks:
                    - each barracks held 50 men
                        - often held between 60 and 120 men
                        - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                            - diseases spread easily
                        - no showers
            - Morning Roll Call:
                - stood at attention
                    - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots
            - Work Details:
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens, plant rice, and farm
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - to prevent escapes, the POWs set up patrols along the camp's fence
            - men who attempted to escape and caught were executed after being beaten
                - the other POWs were forced to watch the beatings
            - daily POW meal - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - most of the food the POWs grew went to the Japanese
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                  - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                  - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                  - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition

            - assigned to Barracks 13, Group 2

            - hospitalized - 13 April 1943
                - discharged - no date given

        - Port Area Detail - Manila

            -POWs worked as stevedores at Pier 7

Hell Ship:

    - Nissyo Maru

        - Friday - 17 July 1944 - POWs left prison at 7:00 A.M.
        - Boarded ship: same day
            - Japanese attempted to put all the POWs in one hold
            - when they couldn't, they put 900 the POWs in the forward hold
            - 600 POWs held in rear hold
        - Sailed: Manila - same day
            - dropped anchor at breakwater until 23 July 1944
            - POWs were not fed or given water for over a day and a half after being put in the ship's hold
            - POWs fed rice and vegetables twice a day and received two canteen cups of water each day
            - 23 July 1944 - 8:00 A.M. - ship moved to area off Corregidor and dropped anchor
        - Sailed: Monday - 24 July 1944 - as part of a convoy
            - some POWs cut the throats of other POWs and drank their blood
            - convoy attacked by American submarines
                - four of the thirteen ships in the convoy were sunk
                - a torpedo hit the ship but did not explode
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - Friday - 28 July 1944 - 9:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: same day - 7:00 P.M.
            - 30 July 1944 - 2 August 1944 - sailed through storm
        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - Thursday - 3 August 1944 - midnight

            - POWs issued new clothes
            - POWs disembarked and taken to a pier - Friday - 4 August 1944 - 8:00 A.M.
                - POWs put into a movie theater
                - later divided into 200 men detachments and sent to different POW camps
            - taken by train to POW camps along train lines
            - POWs arrived at Fukuoka #23 - Saturday - 5 August 1944
- 2:00 A.M.
POW Camp:

    - Japan

        - Fukuoka #23
            - camp consisted of a mess hall, hospital, six unheated barracks on top of a hill
            - ten foot high wooden fence surrounded camp
            - POWs slept in 15 X 15 foot bays in the barracks
                - six POWs shared a bay
            - POWs worked in coal mine
            - POWs worked in two shifts
               
                - A Group worked in mine during the day
                - B Group worked in mine at night
                    - every ten days the groups would swap shifts
                    - POWs were marched to the mine where they were turned over to civilian supervisors
                        - the civilians treated the POWs worse than the Japanese Army guards
                    - the POWs quickly realized that the harder they worked the more coal the Japanese wanted from them
                    - the POWs and Japanese reached an agreement on how many coal cars the POWs had to fill  each day
                    - only good thing about working in the mine was the temperature was 70 degrees during the winter
                - the longer the POWs were in the camp the less food they received     
                    - from the reduction in rations, the POWs knew the Japanese were losing the war

Liberated:
     - 15 August 1945
         - POWs who worked nights told those who worked the day shift the war was over
         - many of the POWs refused to believe it even though they saw the Japanese civilians crying
         - it was only after the work bell did not ring the next morning that they knew the was over
         - 10:00 A.M. - 16 August 1945 -camp commandant told POWs they did not
            have to work, but they could not leave the camp
         - 24 August 1945
              - Japanese gave POWs canvas and paint and told them to make large "POW" letters on roofs of buildings
          - 28 August 1945 - two POWs dropped 55 gallon drums of food and clothing to
             the POWs
              - planes returned almost daily and dropped food
              - 15 September 1945 - Americans entered camp
              - POWs processed and boarded trucks provided by the Japanese
              - taken to train station and rode a train to Nagasaki
                  - saw the damage done by the atomic bomb
                  - POWs deloused and given new clothes
              - boarded U.S.S. Marathon and taken to Okinawa
              - from Okinawa they were flown to Manila
                - it was after he returned to the Philippines that he learned his brother had been killed
                  in the sinking of the Oryoku Maru

Discharged: 25 May 1946

Married:

Children: 3 daughters, 6 sons

Died: 23 January 2001 - Mariposa, California

Buried: San Joaquin Valley National Cemetery - Santa Nella Village, California

    - Section:  2   Plot: 1825


 

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