Pvt. Wayne Wilbur Colvin
Born: 17 January 1908 - Waterloo, Iowa
Parents: Archie B. Colvin & Maude McIntyre-Colvin
Siblings: 1 brother
    - family moved to Wyoming in 1917
Hometown: Cheyenne, Wyoming
Inducted:
    - U.S. Army
        - 21 October 1940
Training:
    - Fort Knox, Kentucky
Note:  The decision for this move -  which had been made on August 15, 1941 - was the result of an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf, in the Philippines, when one of the pilots, who was flying at a lower altitude, noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the water and saw another in the distance.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island which was hundred of miles away.  The island had a large radio transmitter.  The squadron continued its flight plan south to Mariveles and returned to Clark Field.
     When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.  The next day, when another squadron was sent to the area, the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat - with a tarp on its deck - which was seen making its way to shore.   Since communication between the Air Corps and Navy was difficult, the boat escaped.  It was at this time the decision was made to build up military forces in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: S.S. President Calvin Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
            - sailed south away from main shipping lanes
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
                - ships from friendly countries
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship
        - 17th Ordnance remained behind at pier to unload tanks and reattach turrets
            - completed job at 7:00 A.M. the next morning
Stationed:
    - Ft. Stotsenburg
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941
Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
       - 8 December 1942 - 6 January 1942
    - Battle of Bataan
       - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
           - serviced tanks of the Provisional Tank Group
           - provided ammunition to tanks
Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - Death March
            - POWs started march at Mariveles on the
              southern tip of Bataan
            - POWs ran past Japanese artillery shelling Corregidor
                - American artillery returned fire - knock out
                  three of the Japanese guns
            - San Fernando - POWs put in small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses of forty men
                - 100 POWs were packed into each boxcar
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - POWs left boxcars - those who died fall out of boxcars
            - POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell
POW Camps:
    - Philippines:
        - Camp O'Donnell
            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup   
    - Cabanatuan:
        - original name: Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell
                    - Camp 2:  four miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                            - POWs later moved to Camp 1
           - Camp 1:
                - Japanese implement "Blood Brother" rule
                    - five POWs to left and right of escaped POW executed
                    - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - no one successfully escaped from camp
                - to prevent escapes, the POWs set up patrols along the camp's fence
                - men who attempted to escape and caught were executed after being beaten
                - the other POWs were forced to watch the beatings
                - Barracks:
                    - each barracks held 50 men
                        - often held between 60 and 120 men
                        - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                        - diseases spread easily
                    - no showers
                - Morning Roll Call:
                    - stood at attention
                        - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
                        - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs
                          in their shins with their hobnailed boots
                - Work Details:
                    - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens, plant rice, and farm
                    - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                      their shins with their hobnailed boots
                        - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                    - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                    - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                    - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                    - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
                - daily POW meal - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
                - mos of the food grown went to the Japanese
            - Camp Hospital:
                 - 30 Wards
                    - each ward could hold 40 men
                        - frequently had 100 men in each
                   - two tiers of bunks
                       - sickest POWs on bottom tier
                   - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                 - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
            - July 1944 - selected for transport to Japan
            - 15 July 1944
                - 25 to 30 trucks arrived at camp to transport POWs to Manila
                - POWs left at 8:00 P.M.
        - Bilibid Prison
            - arrived at 2:00 A.M. - 16 July 1944
            - the only food the POWs received was rotten sweet potatoes
Hell Ship:
    - Nissyo Maru
        - Friday - 17 July 1944 - POWs left prison at 7:00 A.M.
        - Boarded ship: same day
            - Japanese attempted to put all the POWs in one hold
            - when they couldn't, they put 900 POWs in the forward hold
            - 600 POWs held in rear hold
        - Sailed: Manila - same day
            - dropped anchor at breakwater until 23 July 1944
            - POWs were not fed or given water for over a day and a half after being put in
              the ship's hold
            - POWs fed rice and vegetables twice a day and received two canteen cups of
               water each day
            - 23 July 1944 - 8:00 A.M. - ship moved to area off Corregidor and dropped
              anchor
        - Sailed: Monday - 24 July 1944 - as part of a convoy
            - some POWs cut the throats of other POWs and drank their blood
            - convoy attacked by American submarines
                - four of the thirteen ships in the convoy were sunk
                - a torpedo hit the ship but did not explode
        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - Friday - 28 July 1944 - 9:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: same day - 7:00 P.M.
        - 30 July 1944 -  2 August 1944 - sailed through storm
        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - Thursday night - 3 August 1944 - midnight
            - POWs issued new clothing
        - Disembark: 4 August 1944 - 8:00 A.M.
            - POWs disembarked and taken to movie theater
                - sat in the dark
                - later divided into 200 men detachments and sent to different POW camps
            - taken by train to POW camps along train lines
            - POWs arrived at Fukuoka Train Station   
POW Camp:
    - Japan:
        - Oeyama
            - POWs used as slave labor nickel mine
Liberated:
    - 2 September 1945
    - returned to the Philippine Islands
Transport:
    U.S.S. General R. L. Howze
        - Sailed: Manila - 23 September 1945
        - Arrived: San Francisco - 16 October 1945
            - sent to Letterman General Hospital
Note:  Mother died while he was a POW - October 1944
Stationed: Fort Carson, Colorado
Discharged: 10 January 1946
Died:
    - 11 September 1963
Buried:
    - Bethel Cemetery - Cheyenne, Wyoming
        - Section:  F   Lot: 192  Sp. A



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