Major Charles Spencer Canby
Major Charles S. Canby was born on July 23, 1895,
in Saint Joseph, Missouri. He was the son of
Charles B. Canby & Josephine Spencer-Canby and
grew up in St. Joseph.
It is known that Canby fought in the Mexican Border War. On June 1, 1917, he joined the Missouri National Guard. He remained in the National Guard until April 29, 1918, when he was called to federal duty and fought in France in WOrld War I. When the war ended, he returned to the National Guard on June 5, 1919. At first, he made his living as a high school teacher but later changed careers and worked as a financial agent at a financial agency.
During Canby's time in the National Guard, he rose in rank. On December 1, 1924, he became a 1st Lieutenant. He was promoted to Captain on August 1, 1936. He later became the commanding officer of the 35th Tank Company of the Missouri National Guard
On February 10, 1941, Canby's Missouri National Guard Tank Company was called to federal duty as B Company, 194th Tank Battalion. It was at that time that he was promoted to captain and remained in command of the company. The company was sent to Fort Lewis, Washington, for training. In June 1941, Canby was made commanding officer HQ Company. He would later become the battalion's executive officer.
The battalion trained at Ft. Lewis and in August, 1941, the battalion took part maneuvers. During the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered back to Ft. Lewis. It was there that they learned they were being sent overseas. By train they traveled to San Francisco.
On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer. A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd. He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water. He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away. The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted. It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
In September 1941, the battalion was ordered to San Francisco, California, for transport to the Philippine Islands. Arriving by train at Ft. Masin in San Francisco, the company was ferried, on the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island, where they received physicals and inoculations from the battalion's medical detachment. Those men who failed the physical were replaced.
On September 8, 1941, the battalion was boarded onto the S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. The ship sailed the same day. The battalion arrived at Hawaii on September 13th, remained in port most of the day, and sailed later in the day, but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes, where it was joined by the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destroyer.
During the voyage, on several occasions, smoke from unknown ships were seen on the horizon. The cruiser revved up its engines and intercepted the ships. On each occasion, it turned out that the ship belonged a friendly country.
The ships crossed the International Dateline on Tuesday, September 16, and the date changed to Thursday, September 18. On September 26th, they arrived at Manila Bay at 7:00 A.M., but did not reach Manila until later in the morning. The soldiers did not disembark until 3:00 P.M. The maintenance section of the battalion helped 17th Ordnance unload the tanks and reattach the turrets which took until the next morning.
The battalion rode buses to Fort Stotsenburg and taken to an area between the fort and Clark Field, where they were housed in tents since the barracks for them had not been completed. They were met by Gen. Edward P. King, commanding officer of the fort who made sure they had what they needed. On November 15, they moved into their barracks.
On December 1st, the 194th was ordered to its position at Clark Field. Their job was to protect the northern half of the airfield from paratroopers. The 192nd Tank Battalion, which had arrived in November guarded the southern half. Two crew men remained with the tanks at all times and received their meals from food trucks.
On December 8th, December 7th in the United States, Canby lived through the Japanese attack on Clark Airfield. He managed to send a telegram home on December 17th in which he said, "all Missouri men are safe and well." He spent the next four months fighting the Japanese. At one point, he was assigned the job of collecting ammunition and gasoline. His detail managed to bring 12,000 gallons of gasoline into Bataan for the tanks to use. In addition, the tankers recovered six truckloads of food. On December 24, 1941, he was promoted to major.
On April 3rd, at 3:00 P.M., the Japanese lunched a major offensive with fresh troops brought in from the Dutch East Indies and the Singapore. The line was pushed back far enough that the Japanese long range artillery could shell the rear area. It was at this time that Gen. Edward King made the decision further resistance would be futile, so he sent his staff officers to negotiate surrender terms. His decision was based on the reality that only 25% of his troops were healthy enough to fight and would last one more day. In addition, he had 6,000 troops hospitalized because of illness or wounds. There also were 40,000 Filipino civilians that he believed would be massacred if he did not surrender his troops. At 11;40 the ammunition dumps were blown up.
Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
The morning of April 9th somewhere between 6:30 and 6:45 A.M., the order "bash" was given. This meant the the tank battalions were to destroy their tanks and any other equipment that had military value to the Japanese. At 7:00 A.M., Canby became a Prisoner of War.
HQ Company was ordered the next day, to move to the headquarters of the Provisional Tank Group, which was at kilometer marker 168.2. At 7:00 P.M. on the 10th, the POWs were ordered to march. They made their way from the former command post, and at first found the walk difficult. When they reached the main road, walking became easier. At 3:00 A.M., they were given an hour break before being ordered to move again at 4:00 A.M. The column reached Lamao at 8:00 A.M., where the POWs were allowed to forage for food before marching again at 9:00.
When the POWs reached Limay, officers with ranks of major or higher, were separated from the enlisted men and the lower ranking officers. The higher ranking officers were put on trucks and driven to Balanga from where they march north to Orani. The lower ranking officers and enlisted men reached the barrio later in the day having march through Abucay and Samal.
At 6:30 in the evening, the POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men. Once this was done, they resumed the trip north, but this time they were marched at a faster pace and were given few breaks. When they did receive a break, they had to sit in the road until they were ordered to move.
When they were north of Hermosa, the POWs reached pavement which made the march easier. At 2:00 A.M., they received an hour break, but any POW who attempted to lay down was jabbed with a bayonet. After the break, they were marched through Layac and Lurao. It was at this time that a heavy shower took place and many of the men opened their mouths in an attempt to get water.
The men were marched until 4:00 P.M., when they reached San Fernando. Once there, they were herded into a bull pen, surrounded by barbwire, and put into groups of 200 men. One POW from each group went to the cooking area which was next to the latrine, and received a box of rice that was divided among the men. Water was given out in a similar manner with each group receiving a pottery jar of water to share.
At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the men up and organized them into detachments of 100 men. From the compound, they were marched to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden boxcars known as "forty or eights." Each boxcar could hold forty men or eight horses, but the Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors. The POWs were packed in so tightly that the dead could not fall to the floor. At Capas, as the living left the cars and those who had died - during the trip - fell to the floors of the cars. As they left the cars, the Filipino civilians threw sugarcane and gave the POWs water.
From Capas the POWs walked 8 kilometers, to Camp O'Donnell, arriving in the camp on April 14, 1942. The camp was an unfinished Filipino military camp that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942. The Japanese estimated that the camp could hold from 15,000 to 20,000 POWs. When the men arrived at the camp they were searched and those found to have any Japanese items on them were separated from the other POWs and accused of looting the bodies of dead Japanese soldiers. They were taken to the guardhouse and held there until they were taken to as area southeast of the camp and shot.
The other POWs had any extra clothing taken away from them and the Japanese did not return it to them. Since there was no water available for washing clothes, since the POWs could not bathe and their clothing became soiled, they threw it away. They also stripped the dead of their clothing before they were buried. Most of those who were ill and in the camp hospital had little to no clothing. In addition, there was no water to wash the mess kits.
The only water in the camp came from one spigot which the Japanese guards would arbitrarily turn off. If it was turned off, the next man in line for a drink could wait as long as 4 hours for it to be turned on again. The average wait for one drink of water was from 2½ to 8 hours. For cooking rice, the water was carried from a river located 3 miles from the camp. The Japanese installed a second water spigot which made things better.
The POW bathrooms were slit trenches which quickly overflowed since most of the POWs had dysentery or diarrhea. Flies from the latrines where everywhere in the camp including the kitchens and on the food which caused disease to spread.
The camp hospital had no soap or disinfectant. When senior ranking American doctor wrote a letter to the Japanese commandant of the camp, Captain Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, stating the medical supplies he needed, he was told never to write another letter, and that the only thing that he wanted from the hospital were the names and serial numbers of the dead.
When a representative of the Philippine Red Cross offered a 150 bed hospital for the POWs in the camp, a Japanese second lieutenant slapped him in the face. When the Catholic Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medicine to the camp, the Japanese turned the truck away. Medicine sent by the Philippine Red Cross was appropriated by the Japanese for use on their troops. The medical staff at the hospital did surgery with mess kit knives since their were no medical supplies. For every six medics assigned to work in the hospital, only one man was healthy enough to perform all his duties.
The death rate in the camp rose to 50 men dying each day. Each morning, the POWs collected the bodies of the dead, which were found all around the camp and carried them to the camp hospital. There, the bodies were placed under the hospital awaiting burial which usually took two to three days. To clean the dirt under the hospital, the POWs moved the dead, scrapped the ground and spread lime on the soil. They moved the bodies back into the area and repeated the process where the bodies had lain while they were cleaning the other area.
A burial detail worked daily to bury the dead. Two POWs carried a body, in a sling to the camp cemetery and placed it in a shallow grave. The graves were shallow because the water table was high, and as they dug the graves, the graves would quickly start to fill with water. To hold the body down in the grave a POW used a pole while the other men threw dirt on the body.
Daily work details left the camp to cut fire wood for the POW kitchen and to perform other duties for the Japanese. Long term work details also were sent out, and many of the POWs volunteered to go out on them so that they could escape the camp.
The Japanese finally acknowledged that they had to do something, so the opened a new camp at Cabanatuan. The morning of June 1, the POWs formed detachments of 100 men and marched out of the camp to Capas. As the POWs marched, the Filipinos gave them small bundles of food. The Japanese guards did not stop the Filipinos. At Capas, the POWs were put in steel boxcars and rode the train to Calumpit, where it was switched to the track to Cabanatuan.
The POWs disembarked the train and were put into a school yard where they were fed cooked rice and onion soup. Afterwards, they marched to Cabanatuan POW Camp. The new camp had been the home of the 91st Philippine Army and was previously known as Camp Panagaian.
The camp was actually three separate camps. Camp #1 was were those men who had been POWs at Camp O'Donnell were sent. Camp #2 was four miles away from Camp 1, and because of its water problem closed quickly. It was later reopened and house Naval POWs. Camp #3 was six miles from Camp 2 and later housed the POW from Corregidor, from the hospitals on Bataan, and those who had been at Camp 2. These POWs were generally in better shape then the men who had taken part in the march. Frank was assigned to Barracks 10 at Camp 1.
Details at Camp 1 went out daily to cut wood for the camp kitchens, plant rice, and farm. Each morning, when the POWs lined up for roll call, it was common practice, of the Japanese guards, to kick the POWs in their shins with their hobnailed boots. They also, for no apparent reason, frequently hit the POWs, as they stood at attention, with a pick handle as they counted off.
The POWs who went out on the rice planting detail had to get their tools from a tool shed. As they left the shed, it was the common practice of the guards, to hit the POWs, on the top of their heads. If a guard on the detail decided that a POWs was not working hard enough, he was beaten. They also would push the man's face into the mud and stepped on his head to force it down deeper. The POWs returning from the details often were able to smuggle food, medicine, and tobacco into the camp.
The POWs were underfed and typical meal was 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, and sweet potato or corn. This resulted in many becoming ill since they could not fight off illnesses. The camp hospital consisted of 30 wards which each holding 40 men. It was more common for them to have 100 men in them. A ward had two tiers of bunks with the sickest POWs lying on the lower bunk. Each man had approximately an area of 2 feet by 6 feet to lie in. A hole was cut into the platforms so that those suffering from dysentery could relieve themselves without leaving the tier.
The barracks used by the POWs were built to hold 50 POWs, but the Japanese put from 60 to 120 POWs in each one. There no shower facilities and the POWs slept on bamboo strips. In addition no bedding, covers, or mosquito netting was provided which resulted in many becoming ill.
Zero Ward, which is where those who had little or no hope of recovering, were sent. It got its name because it was missed when the wards were being counted. The ward held those POWs who had little to no chance of leaving the hospital alive. Most of those who died, died because their bodies were too weak to fight the disease because of malnutrition. The Japanese were so afraid of becoming ill from being near the building that they put up a fence around it and would not go near it.
Until October 1942, Canby was held at Cabanatuan. It was at that time that he was selected for transport to the Davao Penal Colony on the Island of Mindanao to work on a work detail. The POWs were taken to Manila and boarded on Erie Maru which sailed on October 28. After stops at Iloido and Cebu, Mindanao, the ship arrived at Lasang, Mindanao, on November 7.
The POWs were taken to the Davao Penal Colony. At the camp, the POWs were housed in eight barracks that were about 148 feet long and about 16 feet wide. A four foot wide aisle ran down the center of each barracks. In each barracks, were eighteen bays. Twelve POWs shared a bay. 216 POWs lived in each barracks. Four cages were later put in a bay. Each cage held two POWs.
The camp discipline was poor and the American commanding officer changed frequently. The junior officers refused to take orders from the senior officers. Soon, the enlisted men spoke anyway they wanted to, to the officers. The situation improved because a majority of POWs realized that discipline was needed to survive.
At first, the work details were not guarded. The POWs plowed, planted, and harvested the crops. The sick POWs made baskets. In April 1943, the POWs working conditions varied. Those working the rice fields received the worst treatment. They were beaten for not meeting quotas, misunderstandings between the POWs and guards, and a translator who could not be trusted to tell the truth.
Many of the POWs became ill with what was called, "Rice Sickness". This illness was caused by a POW cutting his foot or leg on a rice stalk. The POW developed a rash and suffered from severe swelling. If a POW bruised himself, the bruise developed into a ulcer. Most, if not all the prisoners, suffered from malaria.
As the American forces got closer to the Philippine Islands the Japanese began to send as many POWs to Japan or other occupied countries as possible. On June 6, 1944, the Japanese sent the POWs to Lasang, Mindano, by truck. Once there, the POWs were boarded onto the Yashu Maru and held in the ship's front holds for six days before it sailed. The ship sailed on the 12th and dropped anchor off Zamboanga, Mindano, for two days before sailing for Cebu City arriving on June 17th. The POWs were taken off the ship and held in a warehouse. The POWs were returned to the dock and boarded an unnamed ship and arrived at Manila on June 25th.
After arriving at Manila, Canby was sent to Bilibid Prison. While he was there, he visited Pvt. Zoeth Skinner, of the 194th, who was sick at Bilibid and in isolation.
In late 1944, when it became apparent to the Japanese that the invasion of the Philippines was near, most of the POWs on this detail were sent to the Port Area of Manila. The Japanese were attempting to send the healthy POWs to Japan, and other countries, to work as slave labor and prevent them from being liberated by advancing American forces.
In early October 1944, 1775 POWs were marched to the Port Area of Manila. When his POW group arrived at the pier, the ship they where scheduled to sail on, the Hokusen Maru, was ready to sail, but some of the POWs in the detachment had not arrived at the pier. Another POW detachment, scheduled to sail on the Arisan Maru, had completely arrived, but their ship was not ready to sail. It was at that time that the Japanese made the decision that they switch POW detachments so the Hokusen Maru could sail.
On October 10, the POWs boarded the ship and 1775 prisoners were crammed into the ship's first hold which could hold 400 men. They were packed in so tightly that they could not move. Those POWs who had lain down in the wooden bunks along the haul could not sit up because the bunks were so close together. Eight large cans served as the washroom facilities for the POWs.
Later in the day on October 11, the ship set sail but took a southerly route away from Formosa. The ship anchored in a cove off Palawan Island where it remained for ten days. The Japanese covered the hatch with a tarp so during the night, the POWs were in total darkness. Within the first 48 hours, five POWs had died. Being in the cove resulted in the ship missing an air raid by American planes, but the ship was attacked once by American planes while there.
Each day, each POW was given three ounces of water and two half mess kits of raw rice. Although the Japanese had removed the lights in the hold, they had not turned off the power to the lights. Some of the prisoners were able to hot-wire the ship's blowers into the light power lines. This allowed fresh air into the hold, until the power was disconnected, two days later, when the Japanese discovered what had been done.
After this was done, the POWs began to develop heat blisters. The Japanese realized that if they did not do something many of the POWs would die. To prevent this, they opened the ship's number two hold and transferred 600 POWs into it. At this point, one POW was shot while attempting to escape.
The Arisan Maru returned to Manila on October 20, where it joined a twelve ship convoy. On October 21, the convoy left Manila and entered the South China Sea. The Japanese refused to mark POW ships with red crosses to indicate they were carrying POWs making them targets for American submarines. In addition, U.S. military intelligence was reading the Japanese messages as fast as the Japanese. To protect this secret, they did not tell the submarine crews that ships were carrying POWs which made the ships targets for the submarines. The POWs in the hold became so desperate that they prayed for the ship to be hit by torpedoes.
According to the survivors of the Arisan Maru, on Tuesday, October 24, 1944, about 5:00 pm, some of the POWs were on deck preparing dinner for the POWs in the ship's two holds. The ship was, off the coast of China, in the Bashi Channel. Suddenly, sirens and other alarms were heard. The men inside the holds knew this meant that American submarines had been spotted and began to chant for the submarines to sink the ship.
The waves were high since a storm had just passed. At about 5:50 P.M., as the POWs watched, the Japanese ran to the bow of the ship and a torpedo passed in front of the ship. Moments later, the Japanese ran to the ship's stern and watched as a second torpedo passed behind the ship. There was a sudden jar and the ship stopped dead in the water. It had been hit by two torpedoes amidships in its third hold where there were no POWs, but it still killed some POWs. It is believed that the submarine that fired the torpedoes was the U.S.S. Snook.
The Japanese guards took their guns and used them as clubs on the POWs who were on deck. To escape, the POWs dove back into the holds. After they were in the holds, the Japanese cut the rope ladders and put the hatch covers on the holds, but they did not tie them down. They then abandoned the ship.
Some of the POWs from the first hold climbed out and reattached the ladders and dropped them to the men in the holds. The POWs left the holds but made no attempt to abandon ship. On the ship's deck an American major spoke to the POWs, he said, "Boys, we're in a hellva a jam - but we've been in jams before. Remember just one thing: We're American soldiers. Let's play it that way to the very end of the script." Right after he spoke, a chaplain said to them, "Oh Lord, if it be thy will to take us now, give us the strength to be men." The ship sank lower into the water.
According to surviving POWs, the ship stayed afloat for hours but got lower in the water. At one point, the stern of the ship began going under which caused the ship to split in half but the halves remained afloat. It was about this time that about 35 POWs swam to the nearest Japanese ship. When the Japanese realized that they were POWs, they pushed them underwater with poles and drowned them or hit them with clubs. Those POWs who could not swim raided the food lockers for a last meal, because they wanted to die with full stomachs. Other POWs took to the water with anything that would float.
Three POWs found an abandoned life boat and managed to climb in but found it had no oars. With the rough seas, they could not maneuver it to help other POWs. According to the survivors, the Arisan Maru and sank sometime after dark on Tuesday, October 24, 1944. The men in the boat heard cries for help, which became fewer and fewer, until there was silence. The next day they picked up two more survivors. Four other men were picked up by a Japanese ship.
Major Charles S. Canby lost his life when the Arisan Maru was torpedoed in the South China Sea. Of the nearly 1800 POWs on the ship, only nine survived the sinking, and only eight of the men survived the war. Since he was lost at sea, Maj. Charles S. Canby's name is inscribed on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.