PVt. Frank David Busby


Born: 18 March 1921 - McComb, Mississippi

Parents: George Busby & Thelma E. Alexander-Busby

Siblings : 1 brother

Hometown: U.S. Route 45 - Paducah, Kentucky

Education: high school
Occupation: machinist

Enlisted:

    - U. S. Army

        - 25 November 1940 - Fort Knox, Kentucky

Unit:

    - 19th Ordnance Battalion
        - Company A detached and designated 17th Ordnance Company

    - 17th Ordnance Company

Training:

    - Ft. Knox, Kentucky
        - tank mechanic

    - Ft. Stotsenburg, Philippine Islands
Note: On August 15, 1941, orders were issued, to the company, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - Arrived: Ft. Mason, San Francisco, California
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced
    - Ship: U.S.S. President Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day
            - escorted by the heavy cruiser - U.S.S. Astoria and an unknown destroyer
                - smoke seen on horizon several times
                -  cruiser intercepted ships
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
            - maintenance section with 17th ordnance remained behind to unload the tanks and reattached
              the turrets
                -27 September 1941 - job completed at 9:00 A.M.

Engagements:

    - Battle of Luzon

       - 8 December 1942 - 6 January 1942

    - Battle of Bataan

       - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942

Prisoner of War:

    - 9 April 1941

        - Death March

            - POWs started march at Mariveles on the southern tip of Bataan
            - POWs ran past Japanese artillery shelling Corregidor
                - American artillery returned fire - knocked out three of the Japanese guns
            - San Fernando - POWs put in small wooden
boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses of forty men
                - 100 POWs were packed into each boxcar
                - POWs who died remained standing
            - Capas - POWs left boxcars - those who died fall out of boxcars
            - POWs walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell

POW Camps:

    - Philippine Islands:

        - Camp O'Donnell

            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2½ hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant, Capt. Yoshio
              Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                    - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                    - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup   
               - 4 June 1942 - transfer of POWs completed
                   - only sick POWs remained at Camp O'Donnell
        - Cabanatuan
            - original name - Camp Panagaian
                - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                    - put into use by Japanese as a POW camp
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell sent there in attempt to lower death rate
                    - Camp 2:  two miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                        - camp created to keep Corregidor POWs separated from Bataan POWs
                        - Corregidor POWs were in better shape
                            - POWs from Camp 3 consolidated into Camp 1
        - Camp Administration:
            - the Japanese left POWs to run the camp on their own
                - Japanese entered camp when they had a reason
                - POWs patrolled fence to prevent escapes
                    - Note: men who attempted to escape were recaptured
                    - Japanese beat them for days
                    - executed them
        - Barracks:
            - each barracks held 50 men
                - often held between 60 and 120 men
                - slept on bamboo slats without mattresses, covers, and mosquito netting
                    - diseases spread easily
                - no showers
        - Morning Roll Call:
            - stood at attention
                - frequently beaten over their heads for no reason
            - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
              their shins with their hobnailed boots because they didn't like the way the POWs lined up
        - Work Details:
            - Two main details
                - the farm and airfield
                    - farm detail
                        - POWs cleared land and grew comotes, cassava, taro, sesame, and various greens
                        - Japanese took what was grown
                - Guards:
                    - Big Speedo - spoke little English
                        - in charge of detail
                        - fair in treatment of POWs
                        - spoke little English
                            - to get POWs to work faster said, "speedo"
                    - Little Speedo
                        - also used "speedo" when he wanted POWs to work faster
                        - fair in treatment of POWs
                    - Smiley
                        - always smiling
                        - could not be trusted
                        - meanest of guards
        - Airfield Detail:
            - Japanese built an airfield for fighters
                - POWs cut grass, removed dirt, and leveled ground
                    - at first moved dirt in wheel barrows
                    - later pushed mining cars
                   - Guards:
                       - Air Raid
                           - in charge
                           - usually fair but unpredictable
                               - had to watch him
                       - Donald Duck
                           - always talking
                           - sounded like the cartoon character
                           - unpredictable - beat POWs
                           - POWs told him that Donald Duck was a big American movie star
                               - at some point, he saw a Donald Duck cartoon
                               - POWs stayed away from him when he came back to camp
                - Work Day: 7:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
                    - worked 6 days a week
                        - had Sunday off
        - Other Details:
            - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens and plant rice
                - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                  - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                  - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                  - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
        - Meals:
            - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn
            - rice was main staple, few vegetables or fruits
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
                - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
                - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
                - fenced off from other wards
                    - Japanese guards would not go near it
                    - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
                    - medical staff had little to no medicine to treat sick
                    - many deaths from disease caused by malnutrition
        - Burial Detail:
            - POWs worked in teams of four men to bury dead
                - carried as many as six dead POWs in slings to cemetery
                - buried in graves that contained 16 to 20 bodies
            - parents learned he was a POW - 19 January 1943
                - 10 September 1943 - family receive POW postcard

        - Barracks:
            - each barracks built for 50 POWs
                - 60 to 120 POWs were held in each one
                - POWs slept on bamboo strips
                - no showers
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
                - many deaths caused by malnutrition since the men's bodies could not fight illnesses they had
                - others became ill because of lack of bedding, covers, and mosquito netting
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                 - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving

Hell Ship:

    - Canadian Inventor

        - Sailed: Manila - 4 July 1944

            - returned to Manila - 5 July 1944

        - Sailed: 16 July 1944

            - boiler problems - left behind by convoy

        - Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 23 July 1944

            - salt loaded into hold

        - Sailed: 4 August 1944

        - Arrived: Keelung, Formosa - 5 August 1944

            - remained for twelve days for boiler repairs

        - Sailed: 17 August 1944

        - Arrived: Naha, Okinawa

            - additional boiler problems

            - stayed six days

        - Sailed: Unknown

        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - 1 September 1944

POW Camp:

    - Japan

        - Nagoya #5B
            - also known as Yokkaichi
                - 11 August 1944 - camp opened
            - Barracks:
                - flimsy wooden barracks
                - POWs slept on platforms on straw mats
                - Japanese provided little fuel to heat barracks
                    - POWs slept together to keep warm
            - Work: produce sulfuric acid
                - POWs also worked at smelter

            - POWs manufactured sulfuric acid
                - also worked at a smelter
            - Punishment:
                - POWs beaten with sticks, clubs, leather belts, shoes, ropes, belt buckles, bamboo poles
                - salt rubbed into POWs wounds
                - deprived a full rations
                - forced to stand at attention for long periods of time
                    - held two weighted buckets with arms extended in front of them
                - POWs were suspended from ladders for long periods of time
                - made to kneel on rocks, bamboo poles, with heavy rocks behind their knees
                - made to squat with a pole in the crock of their knees
                - POWs taken to guardhouse were repeatedly beaten
                - sick POWs taken from hospital and made to run in cold
                - camp interpreter intentionally  misinterpreted what POWs said so they would be beaten
            - Red Cross Boxes
                - POWs received one full box
                    - one American POW who was known as "Muscleman" preyed on other POWs and lent money to other POWs before surrender
                        - had been a boxer
                        - attempted to collect his debt and interest from the man's Red Cross supplies
                            - started beating the man
                        - other Americans had, had enough of the man and jumped him
                        - knocked him out and threw him on his straw mat and Red Cross Box
            - POWs lived through earthquakes
                - had to rebuild dike
                    - work caused some to later die

Liberated:

    - September 1945
        - returned to the Philippine Islands
Transport:
    - U.S.S. Yarmouth
        - Sailed: Manila - not known
        - Arrived: San Francisco - 8 October 1945
            - taken to Letterman General Hospital

Married: Letha Jane Patterson

    - 5 December 1945

Children: 1 daughter, 4 sons
Residence: Jayess, Mississippi

Died:

    - 17 August 1972 - V.A. Hospital - Jackson, Mississippi

Buried:

    - Calvary Baptist Church Cemetery - Pricedale, Mississippi  - 26 August 1972


 

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