Pvt. Tansell E. Bruce was the son of Connie & Mettie Bruce. He was born in Lynnville, Kentucky on
October 13, 1915. With his four sisters and brother, he attended school in Fairbanks, Kentucky. He attended
high school, but he did not graduate. After leaving high school, he worked as a farmer. Tansell was
known as "Pete" to his family and friends.
On January 22, 1941, Tansell was inducted into the United States Army. Upon arriving
at Fort Knox, he was assigned to D Company of the 192nd Tank Battalion. This was done since the company had
originated as a Kentucky National Guard Tank Company from Harrodsburg. He trained with the 192nd and took
part in the maneuvers of 1941 in Louisiana. After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to Camp Polk,
Louisiana, where the soldiers learned that they were being sent overseas. He received a leave home to say
his goodbyes to his family and friends.
The reason for this move was an event that took place in the summer of 1941. A
squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots, whose plane was at a lower
altitude, noticed something odd in the water. He took his plane down and identified a flagged buoy in the
water and a second in the distance. The squadron followed the buoys and found that they lined up, in a
straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, hundreds of miles
away, which had a large radio transmitter. The squadron resumed its flight plan and flew south to Mariveles
before returning to Clark Field. By the time the planes landed, it was too late in the evening to do
anything that day.
The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been
picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore. Since communication between and Air
Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted. It was at that time the decision was made to build
up the American military presence in the Philippines.
The battalion's new tanks came from the 753rd Tank Battalion and were loaded onto
flat cars, on different trains. The soldiers also cosmolined anything that they thought would rust.
Over different train routes, the companies were sent to San Francisco, California, where they were ferried, by
U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island. On the island, they were given
physicals by the battalion's medical detachment and men found with minor medical conditions were held on the
island and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other men were simply replaced.
The 192nd was boarded onto the
U.S.A.T. Gen. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th. During this part of the trip, many
tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine
guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP. They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and
had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away
from the main shipping lanes. It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the
U.S.S. Louisville and, the transport,
S.S. President Calvin Coolidge. Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they
awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th. During the night, while they slept, the ships had
crossed the International Date Line. On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the
horizon. The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the
direction of the smoke. It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country.
When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas,
coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day. At one point, the ships passed an island
at night and did so in total blackout. This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent
into harm's way. The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at
Pier 7 later that morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to
unload the tanks.
At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made
sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and
that they had to live in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they
arrived. He made sure that they had Thanksgiving Dinner before he left to have his own dinner.
The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the
Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents were set up in two rows and five men
were assigned to each tent. There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at
the end of the rows of tents.
For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from
their weapons. They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts. The plan was for
them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
After arriving in the Philippines, the process was begun to transfer D Company to the
194th Tank Battalion, which had left for the Philippines minus one company. B Company of the battalion was
sent to Alaska while the remaining companies, of the battalion, were sent to the Philippines. The medical
clerk for the192nd spent weeks organizing records to be handed over to the 194th.
On December 1st, the tank battalions were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to
guard against Japanese paratroopers. The 194th, with D Company, was assigned northern part of the airfield
and the 192nd guarded the southern half. Two members of each tank and half-track crew remained with their
vehicles at all times and received their meals from food trucks.
The morning of December 8, 1941, just hours after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor,
the company was brought up to full strength at the perimeter of Clark Field. All morning long, the sky was
filled with American planes. At noon, the planes landed to be refueled and the pilots went to lunch.
The planes were parked in a straight line outside the pilots' mess hall.
At 12:45, two formations, totaling 54 planes, approached the airfield from the
north. When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew that planes were Japanese. Being
that their tanks could not fight planes, they watched as the Japanese destroyed the Army Air Corps.
When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield. The
soldiers watched as the dead, the dying, and the wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and
anything else, that could carry the wounded, was in use. When the hospital filled, they watched the medics
place the wounded under the building. Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
That night, most men slept under their tanks since it was safer than sleeping in their
tents. They had no idea that they had slept their last night in a bed.
One of the results of the attack was that the transfer of D Company, to the 194th, was
never completed. The company retained its designation of being part of the 192nd for both the Battle of
Luzon and the Battle of Bataan.
The 194th, with D Company, was moved, the night of the 12th, to an area south of San
Fernando near the Calumpit Bridge arriving there at 6:00 A.M. On December 13th, the tankers were moved 80
kilometers from Clark Field to do reconnaissance and to guard beaches. On the 15th, the battalion received
15 Bren gun carriers but turned some over to the 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts. These were used to test
the ground to see if it could support tanks.
The tank battalions were sent to the area around the Lingayen Gulf. The company
was near a mountain, so many of the tankers climber to the top. On the mountain, they found troops,
ammunition, guns but were just sitting there watching the Japanese ships in the gulf. They had received
orders not to fire.
The tankers walked down the mountain and waited. They received orders to
drop back from the mountain and let the Japanese occupy it. They watched as the Japanese brought their
equipment to the top of the mountain. The Americans finally received orders to launch a counterattack which
On December 22nd, the companies were operating north of the Agno River and after the
main bridge was bombed, on December 24/25, made an end tun to get south of the river and not be trapped by the
Japanese. The tanks held the south bank of the river from west of Carmen to the Carmen-Akcaka-Bautista Road
with the 192nd holding the bank east of Carmen to Tayug (northeast of San Quintin).
Christmas Day, the tankers spent in the night in a coconut grove. As it turned
out, the coconuts were all they had to eat. From Christmas to January 15, 1942, both day and night, all the
tanks did was cover retreats of different infantry units. The tanks were constantly bombed, shelled, and
The tanks formed a new defensive held the Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas- San Jose
line on December 26th. When they dropped back from the line, all the platoons withdrew, except one which
provided cover, as the other platoons from the area. One tank went across the line receiving fire and
firing on the Japanese.
At Bayambang, Lt. Petree's platoon lost a tank. It was at this time that D
Company, 192nd, lost all their tanks, except one, because the bridge they were suppose to cross had been
destroyed. The company commander, Lt. Jack Altman, could not bring himself to totally destroy the tanks,
and the Japanese repaired them and used them on Bataan. The sergeant of the one tank, that had not
abandoned, found a place to ford the river a few hundred yards from the bridge.
The tankers were at Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and at San Isidro
south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th. On January 1st, conflicting orders were received by the
defenders who were attempting to stop the Japanese advance down Route 5. Doing this would allow the
Southern Luzon Forces to withdraw toward Bataan. General Wainwright was unaware of the orders since they
came from Gen. MacArthur's chief of staff.
Because of the orders, there was confusion among the Filipinos and American forces
defending the bridges over the Pampanga River. Due to the efforts of the Self Propelled Mounts, the 71st
Field Artillery, and a frenzied attack by the 192nd Tank Battalion the Japanese were halted. From January
2nd to 4th, the 192nd held the road open from San Fernando to Dinalupihan so the southern forces could escape.
At 2:30 A.M., the night of January 5th/6th, the Japanese attacked at Remlus in force and
using smoke as cover. This attack was an attempt to destroy the tank battalions. At 5:00 A.M., the
Japanese withdrew having suffered heavy casualties.
The night of January 6th/7th the tanks withdrew into the peninsula with the 192nd
holding its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it, cross the bridge, and then cover
the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan, before the
engineers blew up the bridge at 6:00 A.M. It was at this time that the tank companies were reduced to three
tanks each. This was done to provide tanks to D Company, while those crews still without tanks were used as
At Gumain River, on January 5th, D Company and C Company, 194th, were given the job to
hold the south riverbank so that the other units could withdraw. The tank companies formed a defensive line
along the bank of the river. When the Japanese attacked the position at night, they were easy to see since
they were wearing white t-shirts. The tankers were able to hold up the Japanese.
The night of January 6/7, the 194th, covered by the 192nd, crossed the bridge over the
Culis Creek and entered Bataan. This was the beginning of the Battle of Bataan. At this time, the
food rations were cut in half.
General Weaver also issued the following orders to the tank battalions around this time.
"Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay
will jeopardize withdrawal. If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the
enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged
and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing
the greatest possible delay."
A composite tank company was created on January 8th under the command of Capt.
Donald Haines, B Company, 192nd, and sent to defend the Wast Coast Road north of Hermosa. Its job was to
keep the north road open and prevent the Japanese from driving down the road before a new battle line had been
formed. The Japanese never lunched an attack allowing the defensive line to be formed. The tanks
withdrew after they began receiving artillery fire.
The remainder of the tanks were ordered to bivouac south of the Aubucay-Hacienda
Road. While there, the tank crews had their first break from action in nearly a month. The tanks,
which were long overdue for maintenance, were serviced by 17th Ordnance. It was also at this time that tank
platoons were reduced to ren tanks, with three tanks in each platoon. This was done so that D Company,
192nd, would have tanks.
The 194th was sent to reopen the Moron Road so that General Segunda's forces, which
were trapped behind enemy lines, could withdraw. Attempting to do this two tanks were knocked out by
landmines planted by ordnance, but recovered, and a Japanese anti-tank gun was destroyed. The mission was
abandoned the next day. Gen. Segunda's forces escaped but lost their heavy equipment.
The next action the tanks saw was on the 20th when they were sent to relieve the 31st
Infantry's command post. On the 24th, the tanks were ordered to the Hacienda Road to support infantry,
but again could not accomplish their mission because of landmines planted by ordnance.
The 194th was holding a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road on January
26th with four self-propelled mounts. At 9:45 A.M., a Filipino came down the road and warned the battalion
that a large Japanese force was coming down the road. When they appeared the tanks opened up on them. At
10:30, the Japanese withdrew having lost 500 of 1200 men. This action prevented the new line of defense
from being breached.
On January 28th, the tank battalions were given the job of guarding the beaches so that
the Japanese couldn't land troops. The 194th guarded the coastline from Limay to Cabcaban. During
the day, the tanks hid under the jungle canopy. At bight they were pulled out onto the beaches. The
battalion's half-tracks had the job of patrolling the roads. At all times, the tanks were in contact with
on-shore and off-shore patrols.
For most of March, the situation Bataan was relatively quiet and the Japanese had been
fought to a standstill. On one occasion, two tanks had gotten stuck in the mud, and the crews were working
to free them. While they were doing this, a Japanese regiment entered the area. Lt. Colonel Ernest
Miller ordered his tanks to fire on the Japanese at point blank range. He also ran from tank to tank
directing the crew's fire. The Japanese were wiped out. On March 21st, the last major battle was
fought by the tanks.
Having brought in combat harden troops from Singapore, the Japanese lunched a major
offensive on April 4th. The tanks were sent to various sectors in an attempt to stop the advance. On
the 6th, four tanks were sent to support the 45th Philippine Infantry, Philippine Scouts. One tank was knocked
out from anti-tank fire at the junctions of Trails 6 & 8, and the other tanks withdrew. On April 8th,
the 194th was fighting on the East Coast Road at Cabcaban.
It was at this time that Gen. King knowing that the situation was hopeless sent officers
to negotiate the surrender of Bataan. The tanks were instructed that they would hear the order
"bash" on their radios, or that it would be given to them verbally.
When the order was given, the tankers circled their tanks, fired an armor piercing shell
into the engine of the tank in front of their tank, and opened up the gasoline cocks in the crew
compartments. They dropped hand grenades into each crew compartment setting the tanks on fire. Later
in the war, the Japanese dragged the tanks out of the jungle to send to Japan as scrap metal.
Between 6:30 and 6:45 A.M. on April 9, 1942, the order
was issued. The tankers destroyed their tanks and waited for orders from the Japanese. The
members of the 194th were ordered the next day, to move to the headquarters of the Provisional Tank Group, which
was at kilometer marker 168.2.
At 7:00 P.M. on the 10th, the POWs were ordered to march. They made their way from
the former command post, and at first found the walk difficult. When they reached the main road, walking
became easier. At 3:00 A.M., they were given an hour break before being ordered to move again at 4:00
A.M. The column reached Lamao at 8:00 A.M., where the POWs were allowed to forage for food before marching
again at 9:00.
During this part of the march to reach the main road out of Bataan, the POWs noted that
they were treated well by the Japanese who were combat hardened troops. Their guards were surprised
that they had surrendered and treated them fairly well. It was at Limay that the treatment they received
When the POWs reached Limay, officers with ranks of major or higher, were separated from
the enlisted men and the lower ranking officers. The higher ranking officers were put on trucks and driven
to Balanga from where they march north to Orani. The lower ranking officers and enlisted men reached the
barrio later in the day having march through Abucay and Samal.
At 6:30 in the evening, the POWs were ordered to form detachments of 100 men. Once
this was done, they resumed the trip north, but this time they were marched at a faster pace and were given few
breaks. When they did receive a break, they had to sit in the road until they were ordered to move.
When they were north of Hermosa, the POWs reached pavement which made the march
easier. At 2:00 A.M., they received an hour break, but any POW who attempted to lay down was jabbed with a
bayonet. After the break, they were marched through Layac and Lurao. It was at this time that a heavy
shower took place and many of the men opened their mouths in an attempt to get water.
The men were marched until 4:00 P.M., when they reached San Fernando. Once there,
they were herded into a bull pen, surrounded by barbwire, and put into groups of 200 men. One POW from each
group went to the cooking area which was next to the latrine, and received a box of rice that was divided among
the men. Water was given out in a similar manner with each group receiving a pottery jar of water to
At 4:00 A.M., the Japanese woke the men up and organized them into detachments of 100
men. From the compound, they were marched to the train station, where they were packed into small wooden
boxcars known as "forty or eights." Each boxcar could hold forty men or eight horses, but the
Japanese packed 100 men into each car and closed the doors. The POWs were packed in so tightly that the
dead could not fall to the floor. At Capas, as the living left the cars and those who had died - during the
trip - fell to the floors of the cars. As they left the cars, the Filipino civilians threw sugarcane and
gave the POWs water.
The POWs marched eight kilometers to Camp O'Donnell. The camp was an unfinished
Filipino Army Training Base. The Japanese pressed the camp into use as a POW camp on April 1, 1942.
When they arrived at the camp, the Japanese confiscated any extra clothing that the POWs had and refused to
return it to them. They searched the POWs and if a man was found to have Japanese money on them, they were
taken to the guardhouse. Over the next several days, gunshots were heard to the southeast of the
camp. These POWs had been executed for looting.
There was only one water faucet in the camp, and the prisoners stood in line from two to
eight hours waiting for a drink. The Japanese guards at the faucet would turn it off for no reason and the
next man in line would stand as long as four hours waiting for it to be turned on again. This situation
improved when a second faucet was added.
There was no water for washing clothes, so the POWs would throw out their clothing when
it had been soiled. In addition, water for cooking had to be carried three miles from a river to the camp
and mess kits could not be washed. The slit trenches in the camp were inadequate and were soon overflowing
since most of the POWs had dysentery. The result was that flies were everywhere in the camp including the
POW kitchens and in the food.
The camp hospital had no soap, water, or disinfectant. When the ranking American
doctor at the camp wrote a letter to the camp commandant, Capt. Yohio Tsuneyoshi, asking for medical supplies, he
was told never to write another letter.
The Archbishop of Manila sent a truckload of medical supplies to the camp, the Japanese
commandant refused to allow the truck into the camp. When the Japanese Red Cross sent medical supplies the
camp the Japanese took 95% of the supplies for their own use.
The POWs in the camp hospital lay on the floor elbow to elbow and only one of the six
medic assigned to care for 50 sick POWs was healthy enough to care for them. When a representative of the
Philippine Red Cross stated they could supply a 150 bed hospital for the camp, he was slapped in the face by a
Each morning, the bodies of the dead were found all over the camp and were carried to
the hospital and placed underneath it. The bodies lay there for two or three days before they were buried
in the camp cemetery by other POWs who were suffering from dysentery and/or malaria. To clean the ground
under the hospital, the ground was scraped and lime was spread over it. The bodies of the dead were placed
in the area, and the area they had been laying was scrapped and lime was spread over it.
Work details were sent out on a daily basis. Each day, the American doctors gave a
list of names to the Japanese of the POWs who were healthier enough to work. If the quota of POWs needed to
work could not be met, the Japanese put those POWs who were sick, but could walk, to work. The death rate
among the POWs reached 50 men dying a day.
Tansell described Camp O'Donnell as being a series of wooden huts with bamboo
floors. He and the other POWs slept on the floors of the huts. According to him, at night the
mosquitoes would eat the men alive, while the heat was unbearable during the day.
Tansell was next held as a POW at Cabanatuan which had been home to the 91st Infantry
Division of the Philippine Army when it was know as Camp Panagaian. To prevent escapes, the POWs set up a
detail that patrolled the fence of the camp. The reason this was done was that those who did escape and
were caught, were tortured before being executed, while the other POWs were made to watch. It is believed
that no POW successfully escaped from the camp.
Meals on a daily basis consisted of 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil,
and sweet potato or corn. This resulted in the POWs being malnourished which resulted in many becoming
The POWs worked in rice paddies or they were sent out on work details to cut wood for the POW
kitchens. At roll call in the mrning, the POWs were often hit over the top of their heads, for no reason,
as they stood at attention. Each morning, after arriving at the farm, the POWs went into a tool shed to get
their tools. As they left the shed, the guards hit them on their heads. While working in the fields,
the favorite punishment given to the men in the rice paddies was to have their faces pushed into the mud and
stepped on by a guard to drive them deeper. Returning from a detail the POWs bought, or were given,
medicine, food, and tobacco, which they somehow managed to get into the camp even though they were searched when
The barracks used by the POWs were built to hold 50 POWs, but the Japanese put from 60 to
120 POWs in each one. There no shower facilities and the POWs slept on bamboo strips. In
addition no bedding, covers, or mosquito netting was provided which resulted in many becoming ill.
The camp hospital was composed of 30 wards. The ward for the sickest POWs was
known as "Zero Ward," which got its name because it had been missed when the wards were counted.
Each ward had two tiers of bunks and could hold 45 men but often had as many as 100 men in each. The
sickest men slept on the bottom tier. Most of those who died from disease, died because their bodies could
not fight the illness because of undernourishment.
During this time, his family had no idea that he was alive. They had been told by
the army that he was Missing in Action. It was only when they received POW postcards from him that they
knew he was alive.
On September 1, 1943, Tansell received a beating while on the farm work detail. He was working on
two plots when a guard began beating him for no apparent reason. Documentation also shows he remained
standing at attention during the beating until he fell to the ground. Once he was down, the Japanese guard
It is known that he as selected to go out on a work detail that was given the
designation of "Army Air Detail." It appears the POWs built runways and revetments at an
airfield. While on the detail, he was sent to the hospital ward at Bilibid on March 1, 1944 for a Fundus
Exam. He was discharged on March 3rd and returned to the work detail.
In August, 1944, the work detail Tansell was on ended and he was sent to Bilibid
Prison. After receiving a physical, he was sent to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the
Noto Maru on August 25th. The ship sailed on August 27, 1944, for Subuc Bay, where it spent the
night. It sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving there on August 30th. Later in the day it sailed for
Keelung, Formosa, arriving late in the day. The ship sailed again and arrived at Moji, Japan, on September
Tansell remembered the trip to Japan. He recalled that 500 men were packed into the
ship's hold. They were packed in so tightly that no one could sit down. The trip to Japan took
from July 23, 1943 until July 7, 1944. The POWs disembarked the ship at Moji and taken to
Machi. Of the POW camps, this was the camp the Japanese showcased as a "model" camp.
The camp guards stole items from Red Cross packages and withheld the packages from July
1, 1944, to September 2, 1945. The Japanese intentionally opened packages and mixed up contents so that the
ranking Allied officer would not know how much should be in each package. They also took much of the food
in the packages which meant that what the POWs received had little nutritional value. When they were given
to the POWs they were often contained less items than what had been sent.
The POWS in the camp worked in a coal mine that had been condemned as being unsafe before
the war. Cave-ins were a common occurrence and beatings were given if the Japanese believed the POWs were
not working hard enough. Tansell remained at Omine Machi until he was liberated on September 15,
1945. The next day he and the other POWs were taken to Wakayama, Japan, and boarded onto the
U.S.S. Consolation. records kept at the time show that he was not ill but malnourished. He was
returned to the Philippine Islands until it was determined that he was healthy enough to return to the United
States. He sailed on the
U.S.S. Marine Shark arriving at San Francisco on November 1, 1945. He was discharged, from the army,
on April 11, 1946.
After the war, Tansell returned to Kentucky, married, Helen Foy, and became the father of
two children. He also returned to farming. According to his family, he never spoke to anyone,
except his father, about what he had gone through as a POW.
Tansell E. Bruce passed away in April 22, 1982, in Sedalia, Kentucky. He was buried
at Lynnville Baptist Church Cemetery in Lynnville, Kentucky.