BlairJ

 


Pvt. Joe Daniel Blair


Born: 14 October 1916 - Stone County, Missouri

Parents: Andrew J. Blair & Lennie L. Kirkendall-Blair

Siblings: 2 sisters, 7 brothers

Hometown: Washington Township, Stone County, Missouri

Education: left high school after three years

Occupation: worked on family farm

Inducted:

    - U. S. Army

        - 1941

Training: 

    - Fort Lewis, Washington

Units: 

    - 194th Tank Battalion

Note: On August 15, 1941, the 194th received orders, from Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for duty in the Philippines because of an event that happened during the summer.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  By the time the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.
    The next morning, another squadron was sent to the area and found that the buoys had been picked up by a fishing boat which was seen making its way toward shore.  Since communication between and Air Corps and Navy was poor, the boat was not intercepted.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.
Overseas Duty:
    - 4 September  1941
        - battalion traveled by train to Ft. Mason in San Francisco, California
    - Arrived: 7:30 A.M. - 5 September 1941
        - ferried to Ft. McDowell, Angel Island on U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe
        - given physicals and inoculations
        - men with medical conditions replaced

    - Ship: U.S.S. President Coolidge
        - Boarded: Monday - 8 September 1941 - 3:00 P.M.
        - Sailed: 9:00 P.M. - same day
        - Arrived: Honolulu, Hawaii - Saturday - 13 September 1941 - 7:00 A.M.
        - Sailed: 5:00 P.M. - same day

            - escorted by the cruiser, U.S.S. Astoria, and an unknown destoryer
            - several times during trip smoke was seen on the horizon and the heavy cruiser intercepted the ships

                - ships were from friendly countries
        - Arrived: Manila - Friday - 26 September 1941
            - disembark ship - 3:00 P.M.
            - taken by bus to Fort Stostenburg
    - Philippines
        - lived in tents until barracks completed - 15 November 1941   

Engagements:
    - Battle of Luzon
        - 8 December 1941 - 6 January 1942
            - The morning of December 8th, December 7th in the United States, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field.
            - 12:45 P.M. - the airfield was bombed destroying the Army Air Corps
                - tankers were receiving lunch from food trucks when attack came
            - HQ Company members remained in 194th command area
                - could do little more than take cover during attack
            - As HQ Company watched the wounded and dying carried to hospital on anything that would carry them
                  - most had missing arms or legs
                  - when hospital ran out of room, wounded put under the hospital
            - Next day, members of company walked around airfield and saw the dead laying everywhere
            - 10 December 1941
                - battalion sent to Mabalcat
                    - C Company was sent to Southern Luzon to support troops
            - 12 December 1941
                - moved to new bivouac south to San Fernando near Calumpit Bridge
                    - arrived 6:00 A.M.
            - 14 December 1941
                - A Co. & D Co., 192nd moved to just north of Muntinlupa
            - 15 December 1941
                - received 15 Bren gun carriers
                - turned some over to 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts
                - Bren gun carriers used to test ground to see if it could support tanks
            - 22 December 1941
                - sent to Rosario
                    - west and north of the of barrio
                    - ordered out of the 71st Division Commander
                        - said they would hinder the cavalry's operation
            - 22/23 December 1941
                - operating north of Agno River
                - main bridge at Carmen bombed
            - 24 December 1941
                - operating in Hacienda Road area
            - 26/27 December 1941
                - ordered to withdraw - 7:00 A.M.
                    - Lt. Costigan's platoon forced its way through way through Carmen
                        - lost two tanks
                            - one tank belonged to company commander - Captain Edward Burke
                                - believed dead, but was actually captured
                            - one tank crew rescued
                - new line Santa Ignacia-Gerona-Santo Tomas-San Jose
                - rest of battalion made a dash out
                    - lost one tank at Bayambang
                    - another tank went across front receiving fire and firing on Japanese
                - Lt. Petree's platoon fought its way out and across Agno River
                - D Company, 192nd, lost all its tanks except one
                    - the tank commander found a crossing
                    - Japanese would use tanks later on Bataan
            - 28 December 1941
                - Tarlec Line
                    - most of battalion withdrew from line that night
            - 29/30 December 1941
                - new line at Bamban River established
                - tank battalions held line until ordered to withdraw
            - 30/31 December 1941
                    - tank battalions held Calumpit Bridge
                    - covering withdraw of Philippine Divisions south on Rt. 3, San Fernando
            - 2 January 1942
                - both tank battalions ordered to withdrawal to Lyac Junction
                - 194th withdrew there on Highway 7
            - 5 January 1942
                - C Company and A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion, withdrew from Guagua-Poraline Line and moved into position between
                  Sasmuan and Lubao
                - 1:50 A.M. - Japanese attempted to infiltrate
                    - bright moonlight made them easy to see
                    - tanks opened fire
                    - Japanese lay down smoke which blew back into them
                - 3:00 A.M. - Japanese broke off engagement
                     - suffered 50% casualties
                - Remedios - established new line along dried creek bed 
            - 6/7 January 1942
                - 194th, covered by 192nd, crosses Culis Creek into Bataan
                - both battalions bivouacked south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                - rations cut in half
    - Battle of Bataan
        - 7 January 1942 - 9 April 1942
             - HQ Company serviced tanks and supplied crews with ammunition, gas, and food
            - January 1942
                - tank companies reduced to three tanks per platoon
           - 8 January 1942
                - composite tank company made up of tanks from the 192nd and 194th sent to protect East Coast Road north of Hermosa
                    - their job was to keep the East Road open  north of Hermosa and prevent the Japanese from driving into Bataan before the main
                      battle line had been formed
                - remainder of tanks ordered to bivouac for night south of Aubucay-Hacienda Road
                    - tankers had been fighting for a month without a rest
                    - tanks also needed overdue maintenance
                    - 17th Ordnance
                - all tank companies reduced to ten tanks
                - three per tank platoon
                - sent to reopen Moron Road so General Segunda's forces could withdraw
                - tanks knock out an anti-tank gun
                - two tanks disabled by landmines but recovered
                - mission abandoned
                - Gen. Segunda's troops escaped using beach but lost their heavy equipment
            - 12 January 1942
                - C Company, with D Company, 192nd, sent to Cadre Road
                    - forward position with little alert time
            - 13 January 1942
                - mines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching Cadre Road
                - returned to battalion
            - 16 January 1942
                -  C Company sent to Bagac to reopen Moron Highway
                    - highway had been cut by Japanese
                    - Moron Highway, and Junction of Trail 162
                        - tank platoon fired on by antitank gun
                            - tanks knock out gun
                            - cleared roadblock with support of infantry
            - 20 January 1942
                - Banibani Road -tanks sent in to save 31st Infantry command post
            - 24 January 1942
                - tanks order to Hacienda Road in support of troops
                     - landmines planted by ordnance prevented them from reaching road
            - 26 January 1942
                - the battalion held a position a kilometer north of the Pilar-Bagac Road
                    - four self-propelled mounts with the battalion
                - 9:45 A.M. - warned by Filipino a large Japanese force was coming
                    - when the enemy appeared they opened up with all the battalion had
                - 10:30 A.M. - Japanese withdrew after losing 500 of 1200 men
                - prevented new defensive line being formed from being breached
            - 28 January 1942
                - 194th tanks given beach duty protecting southern beaches
                - guarded coast from Limay to Cabcaben
                - half-tracks patrolled roads
                    - maintained radio contact with on-shore and off-shore patrols

It was at this time the tank battalions received these orders which came from Gen. Weaver, "Tanks will execute maximum delay, staying in position and firing at visible enemy until further delay will jeopardize withdrawal.  If a tank is immobilized, it will be fought until the close approach of the enemy, then destroyed; the crew previously taking positions outside and continuing to fight with the salvaged and personal weapons. Considerations of personal safety and expediency will not interfere with accomplishing the greatest possible delay."
        - February 1942
            - tank battalions on their own guarded airfields
            - battalions also guarded beaches to prevent Japanese from landing troops      
            - March 1942
                - two tanks were bogged down in mud
                - the tankers were working to get them out
                - Japanese Regiment entered the area
                - Lt. Col. Miller ordered tanks and artillery to fire at point blank range
                    - Miller ran from tank to tank directing fire
                - wiped out Japanese regiment
                - gasoline rations cut to 15 gallons a day for all vehicles except the tanks
                - Weaver suggested to Gen. Wainwright that one platoon of tanks be sent to Corregidor
                    - Wainwright rejected idea
        - 4 April 1942
            - Japanese launched major offensive
            - tanks sent into various sectors to stop Japanese advance
        - 6 April 1942
            - four tanks sent to support 45th Philippine Infantry and 75th Infantry, Philippine Scouts
                - one tank knocked out by anti-tank fire at junction of Trails 8 & 6
                - other tanks covered withdraw
            - 3rd Platoon sent up west coast road
                - near Mount Samat ran into heavy Japanese force
                - the tanks withdrew to Marivales
        - 8 April 1942
            - fighting on East Coast Road at Cabcaban
Tank battalion commanders received this order, "You will make plans, to be communicated to company commanders only, and be prepared to destroy within one hour after receipt by radio, or other means, of the word 'CRASH', all tanks and combat vehicles, arms, ammunition, gas, and radios: reserving sufficient trucks to close to rear echelons as soon as accomplished."
            - 10:30 P.M. - Gen. King announced that further resistance would result in the massacre of 6,000 sick or wounded troops and 40,000
              civilians
            - less than 25% of his troops were healthy enough to continue fighting
            - he estimated they could hold out one more day
            - sent his staff officers to negotiate the surrender of Bataan
            - 11:40 P.M. - ammunition dumps blown up

Prisoner of War:
    - 9 April 1942
        - received order to destroy equipment and report to kilometer marker 168.2.
            - Provisional Tank Group Headquarters
        - Japanese officers told Col. Ernest Miller to keep them there until ordered to move
    - 10 April 1942
        - 7:00 P.M. - started march from Provisional Tank Group headquarters
        - 3:00 A.M. - halted and rested for an hour
        - 4:00 A.M. - resume march
    - 11 April 1942
        - 8:00 A.M. -reached Lamao
            - allowed to forage for food
        - 9:00 A.M. - resumed march
        - Noon - reached Limay and main road
            - officers separated from enlisted men
        - 4:00 P.M put on trucks
            - officers arrived at Balanga
            - Japanese find handgun in field bag of an officer
                - he was clubbed and bayoneted
                - because of this they were not fed
        - Dusk - officers ordered to form ranks and marched
            - marched through Abucay and Samal
    - 12 April 1942
        - 3:00 A.M. - reached Orani  
            - herded into a fenced in area and ordered to lie down
            - in morning found they had been lying in human waste
            - latrine in one corner was crawling with maggots
        - Noon - fed rice and salt
            - first meal
        - Afternoon - enlisted men rejoin officers
        - 6:30 P.M. - ordered to form 100 men detachments
            - POWs marched at faster pace
            - fewer breaks
                - when given break, the POWs sat on road
        - North of Hermosa the POWs reached pavement
            - made march easier
    - 13 April 1942
        - 2:00 A.M. - POWs given an hour rest on road
            - those who attempt to lay down are jabbed with bayonets
            - POWs march through Layac and Lurao
            - rains - POWs drank as much as they could
        - 4:30 P.M. - reached San Fernando
            - POWs put in groups of 200 to be fed
                - one POW sent to get a box of rice for each group
                - pottery jars of water given out the same way
    - 14 April 1942
        - 4:00 A.M. - POWs awakened
            - formed detachments of 100 men and marched to train station
            - POWs put into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane
                - each boxcar could hold eight horses or forty men
                - 100 POWs packed into each car
                - POWs who died remained standing
        - 9:00 A.M. - Capas - dead fell to floor as living left boxcars
            - as POWs formed ranks, Filipinos threw sugarcane to POWs
            - also gave them water
            - POWs walked last 8 kilometers to Camp O'Donnell

POW Camps:

    - Philippine Islands:

        - Camp O'Donnell

            - 1 April 1942 - unfinished Filipino training base Japanese put into use as a POW camp
                - Japanese believed the camp could hold 15,000 to 20,000 POWs
            - POWs searched upon arrival at camp
                - those found with Japanese money were accused of looting
                - sent to guardhouse
                - over several days, gun shots heard southeast of the camp
                    - POWs who had money on them had been executed
            - Japanese took away any extra clothing from POWs as they entered the camp and refused to return it
                - since no water was available for wash clothing, the POWs threw soiled clothing away
                - clothing was taken from dead
                - few of the POWs in the camp hospital had clothing
            - POWs were not allowed to bathe
            - only one water spigot for entire camp
                - POWs waited 2 hours to 8 hours to get a drink
                    - water frequently turned off by Japanese guards and next man in line waited as long as 4 hours for water to be turned on again
                    - mess kits could not be cleaned
                - POWs had to carry water 3 miles from a river to cook their meals
                - second water spigot installed a week after POWs arrived
            - slit trenches overflowed since many of the POWs had dysentery
                - flies were everywhere including in camp kitchens and food
            - camp hospital had no water, soap, or disinfectant
            - the senior POW doctor wrote a list of medicines he wanted to treat the sick and was told by the camp commandant,
              Capt. Yoshio Tsuneyoshi, never to write another letter
                - Tsuneyoshi said that all he wanted to know about the American POWs was their names and numbers when they died
                - refused to allow a truckload of medicine sent by the Archbishop of Manila into the camp
                - 95% of the medicine sent by Philippine Red Cross was taken by the Japanese for their own use
            - POWs in camp hospital lay on floor elbow to elbow
            - operations on POWs were performed with mess kit knives
            - only one medic out of six assigned to care for 50 sick POWs, in the hospital, was well enough to work
            - as many as 50 POWs died each day
                - each morning dead were found everywhere in the camp and stacked up under the hospital
                - ground under hospital was scrapped and cover with lime to clean it
                - the dead were moved to this area and the section where they had laid was scrapped and cover with lime
                - usually not buried for two or three days
            - work details: if a POW could walk, he was sent out on a work detail
                - POWs on burial detail often had dysentery and malaria
        - Japanese opened new POW camp to lower death rate
            - 1 June 1942 - POWs formed detachments of 100 men
                - POWs marched out gate and marched toward Capas
                    - Filipino people gave POWs small bundles of food
                        - the guards did not stop them
                - At Capas, the POWs were put into steel boxcars and rode them to Manila
                - train stopped at Calumpit and switched onto the line to Cabanatuan
                    - POWs disembark train at 6:00 P.M. and put into a school yard
                    - fed rice and onion soup          

        - Cabanatuan #1

            - original name: Camp Panagaian
            - Philippine Army Base built for 91st Philippine Army Division
                - actually three camps
                    - Camp 1: POWs from Camp O'Donnell
                    - Camp 2:  four miles away
                        - all POWs moved from there because of a lack of water
                        - later used for Naval POWs
                    - Camp 3: six miles from Camp 2
                        - POWs from Corregidor and from hospitals sent there
                            - POWs later moved to Camp 1
           - Camp 1:
                - work details sent out to cut wood for POW kitchens, plant rice, and farm
                - when POWs lined up for roll call, it was a common practice for Japanese guards, after the POWs lined up, to kick the POWs in
                  their shins with their hobnailed boots
                    - they also were frequently hit with a pick handle, for no reason, as they counted off
                - POWs on the rice planting detail were punished by having their faces pushed into the mud and stepped on
                - the POWs had to go into a shed to get the tools, as they came out, they were hit on their heads
                - if the guards on the detail decided the POW wasn't doing what he should be doing, he was beaten
                - many POWs on details were able to smuggle in medicine, food, and tobacco into the camp
            - to prevent escapes, the POWs set up patrols along the camp's fence
            - men who attempted to escape and caught were executed after being beaten
                - the other POWs were forced to watch the beatings
            - daily POW meal - 16 ounces of cooked rice, 4 ounces of vegetable oil, sweet potato or corn

        - Barracks:
            - each barracks built to house 50 POWs
                - 60 to 120 POWs were housed in each barracks
                - POWs slept on bamboo slats
                - many became sick from the lack of bedding and covers
        - Camp Hospital:
            - 30 Wards
                - each ward could hold 40 men
                    - frequently had 100 men in each
               - two tiers of bunks
                   - sickest POWs on bottom tier
               - each POW had a 2 foot by 6 foot area to lie in
            - Zero Ward
              - given name because it had been missed when counting wards
              - became ward where those who were going to die were sent
              - fenced off from other wards
                  - Japanese guards would not go near it
                 - POWs sent there had little to no chance of surviving
            - hospitalized - 18 June 1942 - rhinitis
                - discharged - no date given
        - Las Pinas Work Detail
            - Nichols Field
                - July 1942
                    - 150 POWs arrive to cut down gogon grass, bushes, and small trees with bolos (long, straight-bladed steel knives)
                - 31 August 1942
                    - 500 POWs arrive   
                        - heads were shaven       
                        - POWs were in fairly good shape when they arrived at Las Pinas
                - 6 December 1942
                - 800 POWs on detail
                - Pasay School:
                    - 3 miles from Nichols Field
                    - POW housed in school rooms
                    - each room was 20 feet by 30 feet and accommodated 28 to 30 men
                     - men slept so close together, on thin mattresses, and could hardly turn over
                        - each POW had two small blankets
                        - room infested with bedbugs, ants, and mosquitoes
            - Cherry Blossom
                - got name from flral insignia he wore on his shoulder pieces
                - Japanese civilian in command of barracks
                - temperamental and described as terribly, terribly stupid
                - roll calls took forever since he could not count over 100
                    - American officers had to correct roll call
                - Latrines:
                    - two toilets for 500 men
                        - cans also were put in rooms
                    - 300 POWs shared seven showers
                    - 500 POWs shared  four showers
                        - waited in line for up to an hour to take a shower
                - Meals:
                    - main diet was boiled rice which was from sweepings of a warehouse floor
                        - nails, worms, dust, glass, bottle caps, were often in it
                        - POWs picked the rice to eat it
                            - each POW received 240 grams of rice
                            - later cut to 120 grams
                    - POWs grew squash, gourds, green beans, egg plant, and sweet potatoes
                        - did not meet their nutritional needs since they got scraps from Japanese mess
                        - meat was in a form of a fish used as fertilizer
                            - fish usually rotten
                    - POWs also received 250 pounds of potatoes each day for 500 POWs
                        - Japanese would let potatoes rot before giving them to POWs
                    - 80 pounds of flour given to POWs each week
                    - 20 pounds of meat a week for 800 POWs
                    - although they worked where fruit grew, the POWs were not allowed to eat any
                    - when Red Cross packages were given to POWs the Japanese cut the food rations by one fourth for 15 days
                    - beriberi spread among POWs because of diet
            - Clothing:
                - Philippine Red Cross gave clothing for POWs
                    - Japanese did not give it to them
                        - also kept Red Cross packages containing clothing
                - every 3 months, the Japanese gave 18 shirts and 18 trousers for 500 POWs
                    - there was enough clothing in a warehouse to furnish each POW with two sets of clothes including shoes
            - Camp Commander Lt. Moto
                - called the "White Angel"
                - wore a spotless naval uniform
                - commanded camp for 13 months
            - Beatings:
                - a daily event
                - POWs were beaten on their way to the airfield, at the airfield, at lunch, and on their way from the airfield at the end of the day
                - one POW collapsed while working and the White Angel ordered him to get up
                    - four other POWs took the man back to the school
                    - Japanese guards gave the man a shower and straightened his clothes
                    - the rest of the Americans were ordered to Pasay School
                    - the White Angel took an American officer behind the school with him where the man was
                    - the other POWs heard two shots
                    - the White Angel told the remaining POWs this was what was going to happen to anyone who would not work for the  Japanese
                      Empire
                    - later the American officer told the POWs what the White Angel had done to the man
                - Yakota - second in command and looked like a wolf
                    - "The Wolf"
                    - civilian that wore a naval uniform
                    - each morning The Wolf selected POWs who looked the sickest and lines them up
                        - the POWs had to put one leg on each side of a slit trench and next do 50 push-ups
                        - if the man collapsed and touched the ground, he was beaten with pick handles
                - A POW collapsed while working
                    - The Wolf had him taken to the school
                    - that evening the Wolf came to the barracks and the man was still unconscious
                        - he took the man and banged his head into the concrete floor and kicked him in the head
                        - the man was taken to the showers where The Wolf drowned him in the basin
                 - a third POW tried to walk away from the detail
                    - told the Japanese guards to shoot him
                    - he was taken back to the school by the guards
                    - he was strung up by his thumbs outside the doorway of the school
                        - a bottle of beer and sandwich were placed in front of him
                        -he was dead by that evening
            - Ikagami
                - second in command behind the Wolf
                - compared to The Wolf, he was good to the men
                - he let them smoke, gave the sick breaks but told them to work if The Wolf or the captain showed up
                - bought cigarettes, rice cakes  and sugar for POWs with their money
                - he also would give a POW his shoes and exchange their shoes for another pair that he gave to another POW for his shoes
                    - did this repeatedly  
            - Work:
                - 1 September 1942 - work started on runway
                    - Reveille: 6:00 A.M.
                    - 6:15 A.M. - roll call taken
                    - breakfast: fish soup and rice
                    - roll call taken again
                        - both healthy and sick POWs were counted
                    - POWs marched a mile and half to airfield
                        - arrived at 8:30 A.M.
                    - Roll Call - after arriving at airfield
                    - tools handed out at tool shed
                    - Initially the POWs worked until 11:30 A.M. and did not work again until 1:30 P.M.
                        - work day ended at 4:15
                    - Japanese took roll call
                        - POWs arrived at school at about 5:50 P.M.
                        - roll call taken again
                        - rush to showers
                        - supper
                        - roll call again
                        - lights out at 9:00 P.M.
                        - work day got longer the longer the detail went on
            - Japanese wanted a runway 500 yards wide and approximately a mile long
                - runway would go through swamp ground southeastward and straight through the hills
                    - plans for runway came from Americans who had planned to build it with construction equipment
                    - Japanese had no plans to use construction equipment
                - POWs built runway with picks, shovels, and wheelbarrows
                    - most had dysentery, malaria, beriberi, diarrhea, and were malnourished
                - POWs worked under the 103rd Construction Unit by order of the Southern Third Fleet
                    - work was easy at first because the ground was almost level
                    - about 400 yards from start, the runway hit the foothills as tall as 80 feet had to be leveled with picks and shovels
                    - work got harder
                    - literally removed the side of a mountain by hand
                    -called "The Cut"
                    - POWs worked barefooted on gravel, rocks, and sun baked mud and left bloody footprints
                        - many only had g-strings for clothing
                        - others worked nude
                    - dirt carried to  swamp in wheelbarrows and dumped as landfill to fill-in swampland
                    - Japanese bring in old mine cars and rail
                        - laid four sets of tracks
                        - four POWs assigned to each mine car to keep them moving
                    - POWs loaded mine cars with earth and two POWs pushed cars to dumping area
                        - car returned to loading area where two of the POWs had another load waiting
                        - all four of the POWs loaded minecar
                        - as tracks got longer, loading pushing, dumping, unloading took longer to do
                        - each track had a quota which had to be met before POWs before the POWs could stop working
            - Medical Supplies:
                - Japanese issued little of the Red Cross medical supplies that came into the camp
                - POW doctors said there was not enough medicine to cure an ailment but just enough to prolong the ailment
                    - there was a lack of quinine and carborine
                    - there was no emetine to cure amoebic dysentery
                - request for medicines were repeatedly turned down
                - operations performed without anesthetics or proper medical equipment
                - only 80 POWs were allowed to be on sick call each day
                    - Japanese determined which men were sick enough not to work
                - POWs who brought the dead to Bilibid for burial
                    - most died of exhaustion or beatings
                    - POW medical staff told to write "malaria," or other disease, as cause of death on death certificates
                    - POWs on detail would not talk about the detail
                    - attempts were made to open boxes containing dead to take fingerprints
                    - Japanese would not allow the boxes to be opened

                - July 1943

                    - for one week Joe was repeatedly beaten
                - October 1943 - 4 February 1945
                    - 200 to 300 POWs were sent to the hospital at Bilibid Prison
                        - most of the sick POWs were from Pasay School
                        - many died after arriving at Bilibid
                        - it was then that the POWs at Bilibid learned what the Las Pinas Detail was like
                - 21 September 1944 - American planes bomb and strafe airfield
                - 22 September 1944 - detail ends
                    - POWs sent to Bilibid Prison

        - Bilibid Prison
            - POWs sent there after detail ended

Hell Ship: 

- Clyde Maru     What is his correct transport?

    - Sailed: Manila - 23 July 1943

        -Arrived: Santa Cruz, Zambales, Philippines - same day

                - loaded manganese ore

             - remained in port for three days

       -  Sailed: 26 July 1943

           - 100 POWs permitted on deck at a time from 6:00 AM to

             4:00 PM

        -  Arrived: Takao, Formosa - 28 July 1943

        - Sailed: 5 August 1943 - at 8:00 AM

            - part of nine ship convoy

        - Arrived: Moji, Japan - 7 August 1943

            - POWs lined up on dock - 8 August 1943

            - marched to rail station and boarded train

                - 9:30 AM - train departed

                    - two day train trip

                - 7:30 PM - 10 August 1943 - arrived at Omuta, Kyushu

                    - POWs marched 18 miles

                        - eighteen rode truck because they could not walk

POW Camp:

    - Japan

        - Fukuoka #3B

Note:  The POWs worked at the Yawata Steel Mills doing manual labor.  The work was to shovel iron ore and rebuild the ovens.  The POWs were sent into the ovens to clean out the debris.  Since the ovens were hot, because the Japanese would not let them cool off, the POWs worked faster on this detail.  Many of the products from the mill helped the Japanese war effort.  If an air raid took place while the POWs were at the mill, they were put into railway cars and the train was pulled into a tunnel.
    Although medical supplies for the POWs were sent to the camp by the Red Cross the Japanese commandant would not give the American medical staff the medicine that was in the packages.  Any surgery in the camp had to be performed with crude medical tools even though the Red Cross had sent the proper surgical tools.  To meet quotas for workers, the sick POWs were required to work even if it meant they could possibly die from doing it.
    Three days a month, the POWs were allowed to exchange their worn out clothing for new clothing, but a Japanese guard beat POWs attempting to exchange their clothing.  The POWs went without clothing to avoid the beatings which resulted in men developing pneumonia and dying.
    The POWs were beaten daily with fists and sticks for violating camp rules, and the guards often required them to stand at attention, in the cold, while standing water.  During the winter, they often had water thrown on them.  There were two brigs in the camp which had as many as 20 POWs in them at a time.
    Another incident involved an American soldier who traded with the Japanese. The war was almost over and Japan was about to surrender.  The soldier traded for roasted beans.  As it turned out, the beans had been tainted with arsenic.  The soldier died the next day.  After going through all he had suffered, the soldier died when freedom was almost his.

Liberated: 13 September 1945
    - returned to the Philippine Islands
Transport:
    - S.S. Klipfontein - Dutch ship
        - Sailed: Manila - 9 October 1945
        - Arrived: Seattle, Washington - 28 October 1945
            - former POWs taken to Madigan General Hospital - Ft. Lewis, Washington

Discharged: 10 April 1946

Died: 5 July 1979 - Reeds Spring, Missouri

Buried: Eisenhour Cemetery - Spokane, Missouri


 

 

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