Albert_A

 

Sgt. Albert Leroy Allen Jr.


    Sgt. Albert L. Allen Jr. was born on February 26, 1920, in Mansfield, Ohio, and was the son of Albert L, Sr. and Beulah Allen and lived at 21 Linden Road in Mansfield.  He was a 1938 graduate of Mansfield High School.

    Albert was attending Wooster College in Wooster, Ohio, when he received his draft notification.  On January 21, 1941, he was inducted into the U.S. Army at Fort Hayes, Columbus, Ohio.  Three days later he had been sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, and assigned to C Company of the 192nd Tank Battalion.  The reason this was the army was attempting to fill vacancies in each of the battalion's companies with men from the home states of the company.  C Company was the smallest, in number of National Guardsmen, and had to be brought up to full strength.

    During his training at Ft. Knox, Allen was made a motorcycle messenger.  From September 1st through 30th, Albert took part in maneuvers in Louisiana.  After the maneuvers, the battalion learned they were being sent overseas, and most members received a ten day furlough home.  Those twenty-nine and older were given the chance to resign from federal service.
    The reason for this move was an event that took place in the summer of 1941.  A squadron of American fighters was flying over Lingayen Gulf when one of the pilots noticed something odd.  He took his plane down and identified a buoy in the water.  He came upon more buoys that lined up, in a straight line for 30 miles to the northwest, in the direction of an Japanese occupied island, with a large radio transmitter, hundred of miles away.  The squadron continued its flight plane and flew south to Mariveles and then returned to Clark Field.  When the planes landed, it was too late to do anything that day.

    Over different train routes, the companies were sent to San Francisco, California, where they were ferried, by the U.S.A.T. General Frank M. Coxe, to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they were given physicals by the battalion's medical detachment and men found with minor medical conditions were held on the island and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.  Other men were simply replaced.
    The next day - when another squadron of planes was sent to the area - the buoys had been
picked up - and a fishing boat was seen making its way toward shore carrying the buoys under a tarp.  Since communication between teh Navy and Air Corps was poor, the boat escaped.  It was at that time the decision was made to build up the American military presence in the Philippines.

    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed on Monday, October 27th.  During this part of the trip, many tankers had seasickness, but once they recovered they spent much of the time training in breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons, and doing KP.   They arrived at Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and had a two day layover, so the soldiers were given shore leave so they could see the island.
    On Wednesday, November 5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a southerly route away from the main shipping lanes.  It was at this time it was joined by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S. Louisville and, the transport, S. S. Calvin Coolidge.  Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was Tuesday, November 11th.  During the night, while they slept, the ships had crossed the International Date Line.  On Saturday, November 15th, smoke from an unknown ship was seen on the horizon.  The Louisville revved up its engines, its bow came out of the water, and it shot off in the direction of the smoke.  It turned out the smoke was from a ship that belonged to a friendly country. 
    When they arrived at Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before sailing for Manila the next day.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night and did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  The ships entered Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November 20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that morning.  At 3:00 P.M., most of the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.  Those who drove trucks drove them to the fort, while the maintenance section remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
    At the fort, the tankers were met by Colonel Edward P. King, who welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed.  He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to live in tents.  The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived.  He made sure that they had Thanksgiving Dinner before he left to have his own dinner.
    The members of the battalion pitched the tents in an open field halfway between the Clark Field Administration Building and Fort Stotsenburg.  The tents were set up in two rows and five men were assigned to each tent.  There were two supply tents and meals were provided by food trucks stationed at the end of the rows of tents.  

    For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons which had been greased to prevent them from rusting while at sea.  They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts.  The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
    On Monday, December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers.  The 194th Tank Battalion guarded the northern half of the airfield, while the 192nd guarded the southern half.  At all times, two members of every tank and half-track crew remained with their vehicles.  Meals were brought to them by food trucks.    
    The morning of December 8th at 6:00, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier.  The 192nd letter companies were ordered to full strength at the perimeter of Clark Field.
    All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon, all the planes landed to be refueled and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north and the tankers counted 54 planes.  When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese.   
    When the Japanese were finished, there was not much left of the airfield.  The soldiers watched as the dead, dying, and wounded were hauled to the hospital on bomb racks, trucks, and anything that could carry the wounded was in use.  When the hospital filled, they watched the medics place the wounded under the building.  Many of these men had their arms and legs missing.
    B and C Companies of the battalion remained at the airfield, while A Company was sent to the barrio of Dau.  On the 10th and 13th, the tankers lived through two more attacks on the field.  They finally received orders on December 21st to proceed north to Lingayen Gulf where the Japanese were landing troops.

    On December 27, 1941, Albert was dispatched from a forward command post with a message for the commanding officer of C Company.  While attempting to deliver the message, he was spotted by a Japanese plane.  The pilot strafed him in an attempt to kill him.  Both tires of his motorcycle were shot out and his oil tank was hit.  Making his way on foot, Albert was next ambushed by the Japanese and wounded.  In spite of his wounds, he continued his fight and was successful in delivering the message. 

    During the Battle for the Philippines, Albert was a witness to one of the first tank battles of the war.  C Company tanks were given the job to keep a road open in the Bulacan Province.  While doing this job, the tanks defeated Japanese tanks which allowed American supply trucks to bring needed supplies into Bataan.

    After the Japanese landed troops on Luzon, Albert went on several reconnaissance missions with General Jonathan Wainwright.  During these missions, Albert drove the general's staff car to the front lines.  Albert recalled often sharing soggy biscuits for lunch with Wainwright.

    During the Battle of Bataan, Albert directed reconnaissance missions against the Japanese.  His recon crews job was to supply information to Headquarters on terrain and routes that the Japanese were using.

    One of the memories of fighting the Japanese which stayed with Albert his entire life was the courage of the 26th U. S. Calvary of Filipino Scouts.  Albert recalled that these soldiers went into combat against Japanese tanks knowing that in all likelihood they would die.  On several occasions, the he watched the Filipino Scouts withdrawing from a battle with both men and horses shot up by Japanese tanks.

    On April 9, 1942, Albert became a Prisoner of War when Filipino and American Forces on Bataan were surrendered to the Japanese.  After the surrender, he and the other members of C Company made their way to Mariveles.  It was from there that he started what became known as the Death March.

     Before they started the march, Albert recalled that the POWs were stripped of everything except their clothing and canteens of water.  On the march, Albert recalled that the Japanese enjoyed making the Americans do double time in 110 degree heat.  He believed that this was done to cause the weaker POWs to fallout.  When they did, they killed them as examples to the healthier prisoners. In recalling the march, he said:

    "The worst part of the death march was being compelled to sit all day in the open field with the tropical sun beating down upon our unprotected heads and bodies.

    The total mileage would not have been difficult. But we were permitted to go only a few miles during the day. and we would spend most of the time in some field at the mercy of the hot Philippine sun.  There was little food or water.

    At night we would not be permitted to rest for any length of time.  Frequently we were moved as many as a dozen times, and many times we would end up in the same from which we started.  Once one of our boys slept through all of these movings, and in the morning he found himself with his original outfit not knowing it had been moved a half a dozen fields during the night.

    We were told by the Japanese that the lowest Japanese enlisted man was better than our four star generals.  One night I came into a field where our men were resting very close together and wormed myself down between two men who grumbled considerably on being moved and pushed about.  The next morning I discovered that I had slept between two generals."

    Not too long after starting the march from Mariveles, Albert realized that he and the other POWs were in trouble.  From the very beginning the Japanese soldiers abused the POWs.  In his own words, "We thought Bataan was hell, we had no idea of the hell that was ahead of us."

    Albert recalled that the Filipino people attempted to throw rice to the POWs as they marched passed them.  They would make balls out of the rice and throw them to the men hoping they would catch them.  Most of the rice balls fell to the ground.  He recalled that a Filipino boy had two of his fingers cut off by a Japanese guard after the boy had thrown food to them.

    As it turned out, this was the only food or water any of the men in Albert's group saw for days.  Albert recalled that at one point, he and the other POWs were allowed to drink water from a stream.  They later learned that upstream from the road, the stream was filled with the bodies of dead POWs and animals.  He and the other men who had drunk the water came down with dysentery.

    In recalling the march Albert said, "You get almost use to seeing the dead men along the road on the march, seeing them shot, and die of hunger and thirst."  

    At one point, a Japanese guard noticed Albert's high school ring.  He motioned for Albert to take the ring off.  When Albert had difficulty removing the ring, the guard nearly tore his finger off to get it.  The guard bit the ring and discovered that it was not gold.  He then threw the ring on the ground and dug it into the ground with the heel of his boot.  As the guard turned away, Albert bent down to pick the ring up.  Through the corner of his eye, the guard caught him doing this.  The guard turned around and hit Albert with his rifle butt.  The guard then buried the ring in the ground with his boot heel.

    Sometime on the march Albert was struck by a Japanese truck injuring his ankle.  Having a hard time walking, Albert fell further and further behind his column until Albert sat down alongside the road.  "While I was sitting by the side of the road nursing a badly ranched ankle a Japanese soldier, hurrying his captives on, bayoneted two of my companions.  It didn't take me long to get about 50 yards from the vicinity even with a bad ankle.  At the next stop I suffered a sun stroke and was unconscious for a time.  A Japanese soldier gave me some goat's milk and told me that the next Jap down the line would take care of me.  He was the one who had bayoneted the two soldiers, so I moved on."

    At one point on the march, Albert noticed that in the road there was something that popped up and fell back down as trucks ran over it.  When he got closer, he realized from its shape that it was the flattened body of a POW.  The body had dried out and was like a piece of wood.  Each time a truck rode over it, It popped up and fell back down.

    On his ninth day on the march, Albert reached San Fernando.  He remained there for two days waiting for a train.  During this time, he and the other men were held in a pen.  At night they slept in human waste.  During this time, Albert traded his underwear with another GI for penicillin pills because he was running a fever.  He believed that the pills saved his life.

    When the train arrived, the Japanese forced the POWs into boxcars that were used for hauling sugarcane.  The cars were eight feet wide, seventeen feet long, and seven feet high.  The doors on the cars were shut and locked.

    Allen recalled that the smell and heat in the car were oppressive.  Men who died slowly slid down to the floor.  Other men screamed in agony.  Being near the door, he was able to get air, but those in the corner of the car usually died.

    At Capas, Allen and the surviving POWs walked the last seven miles to Camp O'Donnell.  At this time, an captain from headquarters fell.  He was bayoneted before he could get up.  Upon arriving in the camp, the POWs had to listen to the camp's commander lecture them.  Albert recalled: "About 5000 of us were lined up on the field beneath a boiling sun.  We were hungry and thirsty.  The Jap captain talked to for two hours from a shelter.  When he was through about two-thirds of the men had collapsed.  I was one of them."  

   Life in the camp was not easy for the POWs.  There was only one water faucet for 12,000 POWs.  He was next sent to Cabanatuan when the camp opened in an attempt to relieve the conditions at Camp O'Donnell.  On May 6th Albert went out on a work detail to rebuild the bridges that the Americans had destroyed as they retreated.

    Albert went out on the bridge building detail to Las Pinas but returned to Cabanatuan September 8th.  Albert believed that this new camp was not much better than Camp O'Donnell.  In describing Cabanatuan, he said, "Cabanatuan was the worst, though.  Men died by the hundreds there, and the graves made you sick.  Some of the men that the Japs buried weren't dead yet, but they were probably so far gone that they never knew it.  There wasn't anything that you could do.  Medical supplies were nil, and everyone was too weak to care much."

    Sometime during this time, Albert violated a camp rule.  The result of this violation was that he was hit in the mouth with a crowbar by a Japanese guard.  This resulted in his losing a front tooth.  

    Fifteen days after arriving at Cabanatuan,  Albert was selected to be used as a slave laborer to aid the Japanese war effort.  800 POWs gathered at 2:00 A.M. on October 6th, and were given rice coffee, lugow rice, and a big rice ball.  After eating and packing their kits, the POWs marched out of the camp at 2:30 A.M. and received two buns as they marched through the gate to the barrio of Cabanatuan which they reached at 6:00 A.M.  There, 50 men were boarded onto each of the small wooden boxcars waiting for them at about 9:00 A.M.  The trip to Manila lasted until 4:00 P.M. and because of the heat in the cars, many POWs passed out.
    From the train station, the men were marched to pier 5 in the Port Area of Manila.  Some of the Filipinos flashed the "V" for victory sign as they made their war to the pier.  The detachment arrived at 5:00 P.M and were tired and hungry and were put in a warehouse on the pier.  The Japanese fed them rice and salted fish and let them eat as much as they wanted.  They also were allowed to wash.
    Before boarding the ship on October 7th, the prisoners were divided into two groups. One group was placed in the holds while the other group remained on deck.  The conditions on the ship, for those in the holds, were indescribable, and those POWs those on deck were better off.  This situation was made worse by the fact that for the first two weeks of the voyage the prisoners were not fed, which resulted in many of the POWs dying during the trip.
    The ship did not sail until the next day at 10:00 A.M. and passed the ruins of Corregidor at noon.  In addition, there were sick Japanese and soldiers on the ship.  That night some POWs slept in the holds, but a large number slept on the deck.  Each day, the POWs were given three small loaves of bread for meals - which equaled one American loaf of bread - which most ate in one meal, but the men rationed their water.  The ship was at sea, when torpedoes fired at by an American submarine but the torpedoes missed the ship.  The ship fired a couple of shots where it thought the sub was, but these also missed.  A while later, the ship passed a mine that had been laid by the submarine.  The POWs were fed bags of buns biscuits, with some candy, and received water daily.
    The ship arrived at Takao, Formosa, on October 12th, and the POWs disembarked and were bathed on the dock.  They sailed again on October 16th at 7:30 A.M. but returned to Takao at 10:30 P.M., because the Japanese thought submarines were in the area.  At this time, the POWs were receiving two bags of hardtack and a meal of rice and soup each day.  The ship sailed again on October 18th and arrived at the Pescadores Islands at 5:00 P.M., where it remained anchored until October 27th when it returned to Takao.
    During this time two POWs died, and their bodies were thrown into the sea.  The ship sailed again on October 27th and returned to Takao the same day.  The next day, the POWs were taken ashore and bathed with seawater at the same time the ship was cleaned.  They were again put into the holds and the ship sailed again on October 28th and arrived at Makou, Pescadores Islands.  The ship sailed on October 31st, as part of a seven ship convoy.  During this part of the voyage, it rode out a typhoon for five days on its way to Fusan, Korea.  On November 5th, one of the ships was sunk by an American submarine and the other ships scattered.
    The Tottori Maru arrived at Fusan on November 7th, but the 1300 POWs leaving the ship did not disembark until November 8th.  Those POWs who were too ill to continue the trip to Mukden, Manchuria, remained behind at Fusan.  Those who died were cremated and had their ashed placed in small white boxes which were sent to Mukden , where they were buried.

    Recalling the train ride, Allen said, "When we got there it was 40 below and we lost over 200 men the first winter.  I contracted pneumonia in February 1943, and because of an American doctor in our tank battalion, was the first patient to pull through."  Why Albert pulled through was because the doctor stole medicine to save his life. 
    When the POWs first got to the camp, they lived in dugouts until a two story barracks was opened.  Each enlisted man received two thin blankets to cover himself at night.  Officers got one blanket and a mattress. 

    The camp Albert was held in was a model camp and used to make propaganda movies for the Japanese public.  During one visit by Japanese big shots, Albert remembered receiving meat in the soup served to the POWs.
    The reality was that the daily meal for the POWs was a soup with soy beans in it.  To supplement their meals, the men made snares to capture stray dogs that came into the camp.  They did this until, one day while marching to work, they saw one of dogs eating the body of a dead Chinese.
    The POWs were forced out into the cold and snow and made to strip when the Japanese searched for contraband cigarettes that the prisoners had bought from the Chinese while working in the factories.   They were made to stand in the snow barefooted while the Japanese searched all 700 POWs.
    Punishment was given for any infraction.  Two POWs were knocked out and kicked in the ribs for violating a camp rule.  At other times, the camp's food ration was cut in half because the Japanese believed a POW was not working as hard as he should have been, or someone had been caught smoking in an unauthorized area.  They would also withhold Red Cross packages.
    The POWs worked either at a machine shop or a saw mill from 7:30 A.M. until 5:30 or 6:00 P.M. each day.  The machine shop never produced anything that was useful to the Japanese.   Each morning, the POWs were marched three miles to the shop where they worked manufacturing weapons for the Japanes

    It was while Albert was in this camp that his parents received a message from him through short-wave radio operators.  The operators had picked up a message the Albert was allowed to broadcast by the Japanese.  This was the first news that they had that he was alive.  In the radio broadcast he said: 

     "Dear Folks. May this short message find you both well and waiting for the day we will be together  again.  As the summer comes to a close my thoughts of home become stronger.  This along with your wonderful letters make me feel the future will be happier and richer time of our lives then ever before.  I am feeling fine and full of pep except for being a bit lonely.  I'm sure that things there are well.  Be sure to say hello to all my friends and let them know I have them on my mind always.  That has helped me along while I am away, so be sure I will always remember them.

God bless you all and keep your chins up.  All my love. Albert."

    At one point, four POWs escaped from the camp and made their way to the Russian border.  They were recaptured because Chinese peasants turned them over to the Japanese.  The men were returned to the camp and put in cells until they were taken to a cemetery and shot.
    In December, 1944, Manchuria came within the range of American B-29's.  Albert recalled the first air raid.  During the raid the camp was hit by bombs resulting in several POWs being killed.  One of the planes was shot down and the crew captured.  When the crew was asked by the POWs why they had bombed the camp, the response, according to Albert, they gave was, "The camp was right in line with a string of Jap ammunition dumps, and the fellow said that their bomb bay doors had jammed on them and they couldn't help it." Albert also stated that he was wounded in the wrist by shrapnel from a bomb.  His wrist carried a small scar from where the shrapnel burnt into the skin.  In recalling the incident Allen said, "That was funny, my glove burnt off when the shrapnel hit me, but I wouldn't take anything for that piece of metal."

    According to Albert the camp was extremely isolated.  " We had no idea that the war had ended - not even the Japs knew it.  Even with the rumors we didn't know for certain until the 19th when the Russians moved into the camp and relieved the Japanese of their guns."

     In his opinion, "The Russians thought the world of the Americans.  They couldn't do enough for us, and I don't think I'll ever forget them." 

     Albert described what it was like when American B-29's began dropping food to the POWs. "They flew so low that we could almost shake hands with them.  They even took off some of the chimneys on our barracks and we were sorry that we had filled in our fox holes.  The whole place was littered with everything from fruit cocktail to vegetables, but were we ever glad to see them."

     In the first letter he wrote to his parents after being liberated, Albert said, "It's over and were coming home soon.  For 45 months we waited and put up with a lot, especially with the 44 month enlistment (forced draft) into the Imperial Army of the Nip.

     We've been we look a lot older and tired looking, but I assure you a little State-side  chow will do a lot.  Have no gray hairs as some do. I can use a little more weight, but that's natural.  When I wrote my first card to you, sometime in March of 1943, I was just beginning to recover from pneumonia, my only serious illness.

     The first time I received mail from you was on January 20, 1944.  Your mail was all from July of 1943 on.  I have received some 60 letters from you, the last one written in March of 1945.  I have received scatterings of mail from various friends of mine, except for one or two letters, so I know very little of them. When you have a chance to answer this, please tell me who's married, who's gone, and who I can have my first beer with.

     There are members of the 192nd Tank Battalion here, some of the 194th, and the 17th Ordnance.

     I presume you know that even with all the action in the Philippines, our casualties were very small, but after our surrender we lost we lost over half of our men and most of our officers."

     Albert returned home married and raised a family.  After being discharged on April 10, 1946, from the army, Albert enlisted in the reserves.  During this time, he enrolled in college and received a degree from the College of Rooster in 1948.  He spent 24 years in the reserves and rose in rank to Lieutenant Colonel.  He also campaigned for the rights of former POWs.

     In 1952, over ten years after Albert had been chased on his motorcycle by a Japanese Zero, Albert was awarded the Silver Star.  In spite of the passage of time, he was still proud to receive the medal.

     Albert L. Allen Jr. passed away on August 14, 2004, in Mansfield, Ohio.  He was buried at Mansfield Cemetery.



Return to Company C

Next