Pvt. Marvin Dexter Taylor
| Pvt. Marvin D.
Taylor was born on February 21, 1923, in Graves
County, Kentucky, to Raymond Taylor and Nora
Cox-Taylor. With his one sister and two
brothers, he grew up in Palmore, Kentucky.
Marvin left school after one year of high school
and worked as a sheet metal worker.
A draft act was passed in 1940 and Marvin knowing that it was just a matter of time until he would be drafted, he enlisted in the Kentucky National Guard to fulfill his one year of military service. The tank company he joined had been re-designated as D Company, 192nd Tank Battalion and was being federalized for one year.
The tank company was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, where they joined three other National Tank companies to form the battalion. During his time at the base, he was transferred to HQ Company when it was formed in early 1941.
In the late summer of 1941, the tank battalion was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, to take part in maneuvers. HQ company did not actively take part in the maneuvers but made sure the letter companies had the supplies they needed. It was after the maneuvers that the battalion was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk instead of returning to Ft. Knox. None of the soldiers had any idea why they were remaining at the base.
On the side of a hill, the battalion was informed that their time in the Army had been extended from one to five years. They also learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM. Within hours, most had figured out that PLUM stood for Philippines, Luzon, Manila. Men 29 years old or older were given the opportunity to resign from military service.
Traveling west over different train routes, the battalion arrived in San Francisco and ferried to Angel Island. On the island, the tankers were immunized and given physicals. Men found to have treatable medical conditions were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion at a later date.
The battalion sailed, on the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott, from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy. They arrived in Hawaii on Sunday, November 2nd, and had a layover. The soldiers received passes and allowed to explore the islands. They sailed again on Tuesday, November 4th, for Guam.
When the ships arrived at Guam, they took on bananas, vegetables, coconuts, and water. The soldiers remained on ship since the convoy was sailing the next day. About 8:00 in the morning on November 20th, the ships arrived at Manila Bay. After arriving at Manila, it was three or four hours before they disembarked. Most of the battalion boarded trucks and rode to Ft. Stotsenburg north of Manila.
At the fort, the tankers were met by General Edward King. King welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed. He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to love in tents. The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived.
For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons. They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts. The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
The morning of December 8th, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers. During the night, word had been received about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. HQ Company remained behind in the battalion's bivouac.
All morning long, American planes filled the sky. At noon, every plane landed and the pilots went to lunch. At 12:45, 54 planes approached the airfield from the north. The tankers believed the planes were American until what they described as "raindrops" appeared to fall from the planes. When bombs began exploding around them, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese. The members of HQ Company could do little more than watch the attack and seek shelters since they had no weapons to be used against planes.
For the next four months, HQ Company worked to keep the tank companies operational. The morning of April 9, 1942, Capt. Fred Bruni, commander of HQ Company, informed his men of the surrender. Bruni somehow came up with enough food for the men to have what he called, "Their last supper." The meal consisted of bread and pineapple. Bruni told his men that from this point on it was each man for himself. Most of the company remained in their bivouac for two days while others attempted to escape to Corregidor.
The first contact HQ Company had with the Japanese was when Japanese officers entered their bivouac. They ordered the Americans to go to the road that ran past their encampment. Once on the road, they were made to kneel on both sides of the road. As they knelt, the Japanese soldiers passing them took whatever they wanted from the Americans.
When the soldiers were ordered to move, they boarded trucks and drove to Mariveles. They were stopped outside the barrio and from there, they walked to Mariveles Airfield and sat and waited. As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them. They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.
Sitting, watching, and waiting the POWs wondered what the Japanese intended to do. It was at that time that a Japanese officer pulled up in a car in front of the Japanese soldiers. He got out of the car and spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail. The officer got back in the car and drove off. The Japanese sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.
Later in the day, Marvin's group of POWs was moved to a school yard in Mariveles. The POWs were left sitting in the sun for hours. The Japanese did not feed them or give them water. Behind the POWs were four Japanese artillery pieces which began firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum. These two islands had not surrendered. Shells from these two American forts began landing among the POWs. The POWs could do little since they had no place to hide. Some POWs were killed by incoming American shells. One group that tried to hide in a small brick building died when it took a direct hit. The American guns did succeed in knocking out three of the four Japanese guns.
The POWs were ordered to move again by the Japanese. The men had no idea that they had started what became known as the death march. During the march, the POWs received no water and little food. It took the members of HQ Company six days to reach San Fernando. Once there, the POWs were put into a bull pin that had a fence around it. In one corner was a slit trench to be used as a toilet by the POWs. The surface of the trench moved since it was covered in maggots. The POWs had enough room to sit, but they could not lie down.
During their time in the bull pin, the POWs watched the Japanese bury three POWs. Two were still alive. When one of the men attempted to climb out of the grave, he was hit in the head with a shovel and buried. At some point, the Japanese ordered the men to form ranks. They were marched in detachments of 100 men to the train station.
At the train station, the POWs were put into a small wooden boxcar and taken to Capas. The cars were known as "forty and eights" because they could hold forty men or eight horses. The Japanese packed 100 men into each car. Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out of the car. From Capas, Marvin walked the last ten miles to Camp O' Donnell.
Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino training base that the Japanese pressed into service as a Prisoner of War camp. It turned out to be a death trap with as many as fifty POWs dying each day. There was only one working water faucet for the entire camp. To get a drink, men stood in line for days. Many died while waiting for a drink. The death rate among the POWs was as high as fifty men a day. Many POWs went out on work details to get out of the camp.
The dead, at Camp O'Donnell, were taken to the camp cemetery and buried in shallow graves. The reason for this was that the water table was high and the POWs could not dig deep. Once a body was put in the ground, it was held down with a pole until it was covered by earth. The next day, the POWs, on the detail, found wild dogs had dug up the bodies or the bodies were sitting up in the graves.
The Japanese finally acknowledged that the death rate at the camp had to be dealt with. They opened a new camp at Cabanatuan. Marvin was healthy enough to be sent to the camp. On June 13th, Marvin was sent to Bilibid Prison. This was done because he had been selected to work on Manila Port Area Detail. The POWs on this detail were used as stevedores on the Manila docks.
When the detail started the POWs were housed in a warehouse that had poor ventilation, poor washroom facilities, and no hospital. In October 1942, the POWs were moved to the Port Terminal Building. The POWs were worked hard and many days the POWs worked 24 hours a day. The Japanese officer negotiated with the ranking American officers and the food, medical care, and living conditions improved. The POWs still attempted to commit acts of sabotage.
In July 1944, the work detail was ended and most of the POWs were boarded onto the Nissyo Maru. Marvin and the other POWs were put into the holds of the Nissyo Maru on July 11th. The ship moved into the harbor on the 17th, dropped anchor and sat for a week. The haul of the ship became hot from the sun raising the temperature inside the hold.
On July 24th, the ship sailed as part of a convoy. On the 26th, the ships were attacked by three American submarines. There was a huge explosion and the POWs could see the flames shoot over the hatch since the hold was not covered. The ship arrived at Takao, Formosa, on July 27th. After an overnight stay, the ship sailed the next day arriving at Moji, Japan, on August 3rd. The POWs were disembarked on a pier.
The POWs were transported to Kamioka POW Camp. The living conditions in the camp were poor with 24 men living in a barracks meant for ten. In the winter, the POWs received two handfuls of coal each day to burn the small stove in the center of the barracks. The buildings were built so poorly that the snow had to be removed from the roofs so that they would not collapse. The latrines were dug by the POWs who also had to build a barrier around the latrine.
The camp supplied laborers to a lead mine owned by the Mitsui Mining Company. The POWs were under the supervision of civilians who used rubber hoses to hit them. If a POW was hurt, he had to remain at work until the end of the shift.
In September 1944, the POWs were liberated. They were returned to the Philippines to receive medical treatment and be fattened up. After being liberated he was promoted to corporal. He returned home and married Irene Virginia Taylor .
Marvin re-enlisted in the military February 7, 1946, and was promoted to Staff Sergeant and worked in U.S. Army Recruiting Service. With his wife, he resided at 640 Adams in Memphis, Tennesee. According to his death certificate, S/Sgt. Marvin D. Taylor died from a self-inflicted gun shot wound on August 27, 1947, at home in Memphis. It would seem that his time as a POW took its toll on him. S/Sgt. Marvin D. Taylor was buried at Grapevine Christian Church Cemetery in Harrodsburg, Kentucky.
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