Cpl. John L. Massimino
Cpl. John L. Massimino was born July 8, 1915, in
Akron, Ohio. He was the son of Frank &
Mary Massimino. He had one sister and four
brothers. His family moved to Illinois where
he lived at 640 Harrison Street in Oak Park,
Illinois. It is known that during the 1920s,
his mother died leaving his father to raise his
five sons and daughter. John graduated from
Oak Park River Forest High School in 1935.
After high school, John ran a machine for Chicago Screw Company for two years before taking a job in an Oak Park florist shop. He joined the Illinois National Guard's 33rd Tank Company in Maywood, Illinois. Because of his physical size, John was known as "The Mouse" to the other members of the company.
On November 25, 1940, the Maywood Tank
Company was called into federal service and sent
to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for training. Upon
arrival at Fort Knox, the company was given the
designation of Company B of the 192nd Tank
Battalion. John, like all the members of
the company, was trained to operate tanks,
half-tracks and motorcycles. John
qualified as a tank driver.
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the
night of January 6th/7th, the 192nd held its
position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could
leap frog past it, cross a bridge, and then
cover the 192nd's withdraw over the bridge. The
192nd was the last American unit to enter
Over the next
several months, the battalion fought battle
after battle with tanks that were not designed
for jungle warfare. The tank battalions , on
January 28th, were given the job of
protecting the beaches. The 192nd
was assigned the coast line from Paden
Point to Limay along Bataan's east
coast. The Japanese later admitted
that the tanks guarding the beaches
prevented them from attempting
B Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line. The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket. Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
During one tank engagement with the Japanese, Lt. Ed Winger's tank was disabled by the Japanese. The Japanese used flame throwers on the tank blinding John the tank's driver. The tank ended up wedged between two trees.
After escaping from the tank and attempting to make his way to the Filipino and American lines, Lt. Winger was shot by a Filipino soldier who mistook him as an infiltrator. To save Lt. Winger's life, John carried him for three days in an attempt to reach a military hospital. Lt. Winger died before reaching the hospital. For this action, John received the Silver Star.
The night before the American forces were to surrender, John, Sgt. Jim Bashleben and a few other members of B Company stopped a supply truck. The men gorged themselves on condensed milk. It was John's belief that doing this helped him and the others survive the march. He started the march on April 9th and arrived at Camp O'Donnell on April 15th.
On the march, John witnessed several instances of brutality. The Japanese would line the prisoners up and make them wait for hours to get a half cup of water. He once saw a Japanese officer walk along the line and knock the cups out of the hands of the prisoners before they had a chance to drink the water. John recalled that men who died on the march were buried where they fell. In one case, John saw a Japanese detail burying a man who was not dead. When the man tried to crawl out of his grave, a Japanese officer hit him with a shovel and then they buried him.
On the march, a Japanese guard saw that John had a small signet ring on the little finger of his left hand. The ring belonged to Betty Jean Smith of Oak Park. It was a link with the past life he no longer had. He was not about to give the ring up. He ducked in front of a slow moving group of marchers which caused the guard to lose him.
John also received a beating as a prisoner while on the march. One night the prisoners were herded into a small corral. He was tired and lay down to sleep. A Japanese officer, who was walking in the corral, stumbled over him. In anger, the officer kicked John six times in the head. The officer finished the beating off by throwing a brick at him.
John was first imprisoned at Camp O'Donnell. This was a death camp. The POWs there could not dig graves for the dead fast enough. At night, the dogs would dig up the bodies and chew on them. At Camp O'Donnell, he also witnessed brutality over and over again. In one case, a Japanese guard called a young American soldier to come across the perimeter wire to him. When the soldier did, the guard grabbed him and said he was trying to escape. The soldier was shot.
John remained at Camp O'Donnell until June 27,
1942, and then he was sent to Cabanatuan.
After arriving in the camp, John was
hospitalized on Friday, June 19, 1942, suffering
from malaria. He remained in the hospital
until he was discharged on August 25th.
John was again admitted to the camp's hospital
on April 13, 1943. The report does not
indicate why he had been admitted or when he was
The POWs boarded the ship on October 1st and
sailed but dropped anchor at the harbor's
breakwater. It remained there for three
days and the temperatures in the hold rose to
over 100 degrees causing some men to go
crazy. The Japanese threatened to kill the
POWs if they didn't quiet the men. To do
this, the sane POWs strangled those out of their
minds or hit them with canteens.
The ships were informed, on October 9th, that American carriers were seen near Formosa and American planes were in the area. The decision was made for the ships to go to Hong Kong. During this part of the trip, the ships ran into American submarines which sank two more ships. The Hokusen Maru arrived at Hong Kong on October 11th. While it was in port, American planes bombed the harbor on October 16th. On October 21st, the ship sailed for Takao, Formosa, arriving on October 24th.
Upon reaching Formosa, the John was held at
Heito POW Camp because the Japanese were too
hard pressed to send them on to Japan. He
was in the camp from November 9, 1944, until
January 24, 1945. John was in a group of
110 Americans to arrive at the camp from
John described the work the POWs did in the
camp. In his own words, "After we were there about
five days, they started the men working.
My job was to load ballast stones on box
cars. Along four other men, I had
to load three boxcars each with ten ton of
stone per day. To perform this job we
each used a basket called a 'punki.'
Those who were too ill to perform this type of
work , worked on the camp farm."
from his talks, with these men, that once the
they were inside the guard house they were
beaten by Lt. Tamaki. Tamaki hit them on
their backs and shoulders and their legs with a
bamboo cane. After two or three days, the
POWs were released from the guardhouse. A
few of these POWs showed John the welts on their
backs and legs from the beatings.
John also recalled that not too long after arriving in the camp, ten Americans died from severe headaches or "brain fever." The British POW doctor could not do anything for the men who came down with the fever since he had no medicine. Capt Tamaki called both the American and British POWs together and had a talk with them. He asked if any of the POWs had a fever. About fifty or sixty POWs raised their hands. Capt. Tamaki told the POWs that the camp had a large cemetery with a lot of room in it for all of them. He told the POWs he was going to work hard to fill the cemetery.
John recalled he was on the burial details for two of his friends, Sgt. John Morine, from Port Clinton, Ohio, and T/4 Ralph Madison, from Janesville, Wisconsin. According to John, both men died from the fever.
John also recalled that when the Japanese colonel who was in charge of making sure that the POWs were fed well came to the camp, the POWs rations were increased. He would tell them how lucky they were to be Japanese POWs. He mentioned meals of ducks, geese, pigs and vegetables. All these were raised in the camp. After the colonel left the camp, the POWs rations were reduced to 450 grams of rice and one potato a day. John pointed out that the potatoes grown in the camp were washed, cooked and fed to the pigs that were raised at the camp.
John and the other POWs were boarded onto the Enoshima Maru on January 25, 1945, at Keelung, Formosa. He finally arrived in Japan in February 1945, and was sent to Naruo Camp where he worked in a graphite factory. The graphite would produce ulcers on the POWs which would grow in size the longer that they worked in the factory. The camp was closed May 29, 1945.
John was then sent to Nagoya #9, outside of Toyama, in north central Honshu, Japan. There, John worked in the kitchen. Most of the prisoners in the camp did dock work and loaded and unloaded ships. While a prisoner, John witnessed the bombing of the City of Toyama by 150 B-29s. When they were through, he watched the city burn. He thought it was a beautiful site.
John remained a POW until he was liberated at the end of the war. He was returned to the Philippines and after medical treatment, he was boarded onto the Simon Bolivar arriving at San Francisco on October 25, 1945. After receiving additional medical treatment, he was discharged, from the Army, on April 28, 1946. Before he was discharged, on February 26, 1946, John was interviewed to give testimony against Japanese Captain Tamarki who commanded Heito POW Camp on Formosa. Captain Tamarki had been charged with the mistreatment of American POWs.
John returned to Oak Park, Illinois, but he did not marry the girl whose ring he had risked his life to keep. John married and was the father of two children. He resided in Bensenville, Illinois, and worked for Illinois Bell Telephone until his retirement. He then moved to Seminole, Florida.
John L. Massimino passed away on October 23, 2001, in Florida. He was buried at Bay Pines National Cemetery, Bay Pines, Florida, in Section B, Site 282.