Martel

Pvt. Edward Francis Martel


    Pvt. Edward F. Martel was the son of William & Bina Martel.  He was born on February 2, 1919, and grew up at 87 Mall Street in Lynn, Massachusetts.  Ed attended St. Jean Baptist Catholic School and Breed Junior High School.  He attended high school but left during his junior year.

    In 1936, Ed joined the Massachusetts National Guard.  He was a member of the 101st Engineer Battalion for one year.  In 1937, Ed transferred into the regular army and was assigned to the 66th Infantry.  This unit trained in light tanks and Ed trained as a tank driver.  During this time, Ed was stationed at Fort Devens in Ayer, Massachusetts.

    In 1939, Ed was reassigned to Ft. Benning, Georgia.  There he trained in medium tanks.  The unit he was in was reassigned to Camp Polk, Louisiana, in 1941.  During this time Ed rose in rank from private to sergeant.  

    In the fall of 1941, after taking part in maneuvers in Louisiana, the 192nd Tank Battalion received orders to be sent overseas.  Those National Guardsmen 29 years old or older were allowed to resign from federal duty.  After this had been done, replacements were sought to fill out the battalion's roster.  

    Although volunteering to join the 192nd meant that Ed would lose his rank and be busted to private, Ed volunteered to be transferred to the 192nd.  He did this so that he had the opportunity to go overseas.

    Once Ed became a member of the 192nd, he was assigned to C Company as a tank driver.  Ed became a member of the tank crew of Sgt. Kenneth Thompson.  He and the other members of his new company were sent to San Francisco by train and ferried to Angel Island.  They were given physicals and boarded a transport for the Philippine Islands.
    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.
   
At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
    They were greeted by Gen. Edward King, who apologized that they had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Field.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
   
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance.

    The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of the Clark Field to guard against Japanese paratroopers on December 1st to guard against paratroopers.  Two members of each tank remained with their tank at all times.  The morning of December 8, 1941, Ed and the other men heard the news of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.  They were ordered to move their tanks to the perimeter of the airfield to prevent the Japanese from using paratroopers.  That morning, every available American plane was in the air to prevent another Pearl Harbor.

    Around noon every American plane landed and their pilots went to lunch.  Around 12:45, the tankers were having lunch when they saw formations of planes approaching the airfield.  At first they believed that the planes were American, it was only when they heard the sound of bombs falling that they knew the planes were Japanese.  The attack literally wiped out the American Army Air Corps.

    After the attack, Ed saw the carnage from the attack.  His unit remained on alert around Clark Field.  On December 21st, the Japanese began landing troops at Lingayen Gulf, C Company was ordered north in support of B Company.   Ed recalled that the tanks dodged Japanese bombers on their trek north.

    Arriving in the foothills just north and west of Bagio, Ed witnessed the destruction of the 26th U. S. Cavalry.  The tankers drove passed carcasses of dead horses.  As they passed, they also saw the bodies of the dead Filipino Scouts who had rode the horses.

    When the tanks reached Lingayen Gulf, Ed recalled looking out onto the water and seeing more ships than he could have ever imagined.  The tankers realized that there was no possible way to stop the Japanese on the beaches, so they made an orderly retreat toward Manila.

    On December 23rd and 24th, the battalion was in the area of Urdaneta.   The bridge they were going to use to cross the Agno River was destroyed and the tankers made an end run to get south of river.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening.  They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.
    The tankers were fell back toward Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 27th, and December were at San Isidro south of Cabanatuan on December 28th and 29th.  While there, the bridge over the Pampanga River was destroyed, they were able find a crossing over the river.  
   
    At Cabu, seven tanks of the company fought a three hour battle with the Japanese.  The main Japanese line was south of Saint Rosa Bridge ten miles to the south of the battle.
  The tanks were hidden in brush as Japanese troops passed them for three hours without knowing that they were there.  While the troops passed, Lt. William Gentry was on his radio describing what he was seeing.  It was only when a Japanese soldier tried take a short cut through the brush, that his tank was hidden in, that the tanks were discovered.  The tanks turned on their sirens and opened up on the Japanese.  They then fell back to Cabanatuan.           
    C Company was re-supplied and withdrew to Baluiag where the tanks encountered Japanese troops and ten tanks.  It was at Baluiag that Gentry's tanks won the first tank victory of World War II against enemy tanks.       

    After this battle, C Company made its way south.  When it entered Cabanatuan, it found the barrio filled with Japanese guns and other equipment.  The tank company destroyed as much of the equipment as it could before proceeding south.

    On December 31, 1941,  Company was sent out reconnaissance patrols north of the town of Baluiag.  The patrols ran into Japanese patrols, which told the Americans that the Japanese were on their way.  Knowing that the railroad bridge was the only way into the town and to cross the river, Lt. Gentry set up his defenses in view of the bridge and the rice patty it crossed. 

    Early on the morning of the 31st, the Japanese began moving troops and across the bridge.  The engineers came next and put down planking for tanks.  A little before noon Japanese tanks began crossing the bridge.  

    Later that day, the Japanese had assembled a large number of troops in the rice field on the northern edge of the town.  One platoon of tanks under the command of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady were to the southeast of the bridge.   Gentry's tanks were to the south of the bridge in huts, while third platoon commanded by Capt Harold Collins was to the south on the road leading out of Baluiag2nd Lt. Everett Preston had been sent south to find a bridge to cross to attack the Japanese from behind.  

    Major Morley came riding in his jeep into Baluiag.  He stopped in front of a hut and was spotted by the Japanese who had lookouts in the town's church's steeple.  The guard became very excited so Morley, not wanting to give away the tanks positions, got into his jeep and drove off.  Bill had told him that his tanks would hold their fire until he was safely out of the village.

    When Gentry felt the Morley was out of danger, he ordered his tanks to open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge.  The tanks then came smashing through the huts' walls and drove the Japanese in the direction of Lt. Marshall Kennady's tanks.  Kennady had been radioed and was waiting.

    Kennady's platoon held its fire until the Japanese were in view of his platoon and then joined in the hunt.  The Americans chased the tanks up and down the streets of the village, through buildings and under them.  By the time Bill's unit was ordered to disengage from the enemy, they had knocked out at least eight enemy tanks. 

    During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company crossed over the last bridge which was mined and about to be blown.  The 192nd held its position so that the 194th Tank Battalion could leap frog past it and then cover the 192nd's withdraw. The 192nd was the last American unit to enter Bataan.
   
Over the next several months, the battalion fought battle after battle with tanks that were not designed for jungle warfare.  The tank battalions , on January 28th, were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.  
   
C Company also took part in the Battle of the Pockets to wipe out Japanese soldiers who had been trapped behind the main defensive line.  The tanks would enter the pocket one at a time to replace a tank in the pocket.  Another tank did not enter the pocket until a tank exited the pocket.
   
To exterminate the Japanese, two methods were used.  The first was to have three Filipino soldiers ride on the back of the tank.  As the tank went over a Japanese foxhole, the Filipinos dropped three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the grenades were from WWI, one out of three usually exploded.
    The other method to use to kill the Japanese was to park a tank with one track over the foxhole.  The driver gave the other track power resulting with the tank spinning around and grinding its way down into the foxhole.  The second method was simple.  The tank was parked with one track across the foxhole.   The driver spun the tank on one track.  The tank dug into the dirt until the Japanese soldiers were dead. 

The tankers slept upwind of their tanks.

    As Ed and the other members of Company C withdrew toward Bataan, they received orders to go to kilometer post 101 on the west coast of Bataan.  This order placed the company about 40 miles north of Mariveles.  Their orders were to prevent the Japanese from landing troops behind the main defensive battle line.

    It was while on this duty that Ed took part in what became known as "The Battle of the Pockets".  At night, the Japanese landed Marines behind the main line of defense.  Their plan was for the Marines to fight their way north toward the main battle line.  Instead, the Japanese were cut off from reinforcements.

    A few nights later, in an attempt to reinforce the first group of Marines, the Japanese landed Marines a second time.  Since this second group of Japanese Marines was landed in the wrong place, a second pocket was created.

    In attempt to wipe out these pockets, C Company tanks with tanks from B Company were sent to the pockets.  The Japanese had dug themselves in and were almost impossible to flush out.

    Lt. John Hay, of C Company, came up with the idea of driving the tanks over the Japanese foxholes.  On the back of each tank, were soldiers with a bag of hand grenades.  Since the Japanese dove back into their foxholes when the tanks approached, the soldiers sitting on the tanks dropped grenades into the Japanese foxholes as the tanks drove over them.  This tactic wiped out the two pockets

    Ed also recalled that during this operation, that one of the tanks of C Company was knocked out when a magnetic mine was attached to it.  The crew was trapped inside the tank.  When they did not surrender, the Japanese filled the tank with dirt through the viewing ports suffocating the crew

    Since the tank could be used for spear parts for the other tanks, the tankers had to recover it.  Ed remembered that those tankers attempting to recover the tank came under sniper fire.  The sniper fire resulted in the death of at least one member of B Company.

    Word came down to Ed and the rest of C Company of the surrender.  They were given instructions to destroy their tanks when they heard the order "crash".  When the order was given, most of the tanks were destroyed.
   
    On April 7, 1942, the Japanese broke through the east side of the main defensive line on Bataan.  C Company was pulled out of their position along the west side of the line.  They were ordered to reinforce the eastern portion of the line.  Traveling south to Mariveles, the tankers started up the eastern road but were unable to reach their assigned area due to the roads being blocked by retreating Filipino and American forces.

    Two days later on April 9, 1942, Bataan was officially surrendered to the Japanese.  Ed was now a Prisoner of War.  After receiving orders from the Japanese to move to Mariveles, and the rest of C Company were allowed to ride trucks to the barrio.

    In Mariveles, Ed and his company lined up in a field facing Corregidor.  As they stood there, the Japanese searched them for what they called contraband.  This included guns, knives, jewelry, other valuables, money, watches, and whatever else that the Japanese wanted to take.

Ed and the other men were organized into groups of 100 POWs.  Japanese officers walked among the prisoners looking for Filipinos.  The officers pulled the Filipinos out of the group and shot them in their temples.  After they fell to the ground, the Japanese kicked their bodies into the ditches alongside the road.

    From Mariveles, Ed made his way to San Fernando.  There, Ed and the other POWs were packed into small wooden boxcars used to haul sugarcane.  The prisoners rode the train to Capas where they climbed out of the boxcars and walked the last few miles to Camp O'Donnell.

    Ed recalled that by the time he and the other men reached Camp O'Donnell, that they were sick.  At least half of the POWs had yellow jaundice, malaria, beriberi, scurvy, Dengue fever and dysentery.  The situation there was so bad that he volunteered to go out on a work detail.

    The detail Ed was put on was to collect scrap-metal that would be sent to Japan.   He estimated that there were as many as 150 POWs on the detail.  The POWs were driven in trucks to a Catholic girls' school and put up in a dormitory at San Fernando.  The prisoners were then taken to Bataan where they towed vehicles to the Sam Miguel Brewery outside of Manila and back to San Fernando.

    In September, the detail ended and Ed was sent to Cabanatuan #3.  This camp was opened because of the conditions at Camp O'Donnell.  He remained in the camp for one year.  During this time he was often so sick that he came close to dying.  He was admitted to the camp hospital on February 1, 1943.  Records kept at the camp do not give a reason why he was admitted or when he was discharged.

    Cabanatuan had a camp farm that the POWs worked.  The POWs grew the food and the Japanese ate it leaving the greenery for the prisoners.  Ed worked on the farm and felt that farming was not hard.  What made it hard was the Japanese guards.  There was one Japanese sergeant who carried a club.  This sergeant liked to hit the POWs with the club.  Any prisoner who he believed was not working hard enough got knocked over with it.

    Ed stated that he and the other prisoners knew how the war was going from POWs coming in from work details.  The Filipino people would tell these men the news from that they heard from American radio broadcasts, and the POWs would share it with the men in the camp.

    In July of 1944, Ed was selected for transport to Japan.  He was taken to Bilibid Prison and stayed there for two weeks before being taken to the Port Area of Manila and boarded onto the Canadian Inventor.  As the POWs were boarding the ship Ed and other men witnessed a commercial Japanese shop blow up in the harbor.  They were delighted.  The ship sailed for Japan on July 4th.  During the trip, the ship stopped and Takao and Keelung on Formosa.  It next sailed for Okinawa and docked at Naha.  The ship finally arrived at Moji on September 1st.

    After arriving in Japan, Ed was sent to Fukuoka #17 to work in a coal mine.    In his opinion, he and other prisoners were "Rip Van Wrinkles" because they had no news of how the war was going.

    One of the few times they received news was when one of the Japanese guards told them that they were "chesa" or "small" while the new Americans were "oke" or "big".  They were delighted to hear this because this meant that the American forces were close.

    Sometime around August 15, 1945, the guards left the camp.  Some of the able bodied POWs took off for Prince Kanoe Airport.  Ed and the other weaker POWs remained in the camp receiving food by air drops made by B-52 bombers.

    Ed and the other POWs were later trucked to Nagasaki and taken aboard a hospital ship.  From there, Ed got a ride on an aircraft carrier to Guam and back to the Philippines.  He stayed in the Philippines for four weeks eating and receiving medication.

    When Ed was declared healthy, he was put on the U.S.S.Marine Shark which arrived at San Francisco on November 1, 1945.  He took a train to Ft. Devens, Massachusetts and with a 104 day recuperation leave.  Ed reenlisted and received an additional 90 day reenlistment leave.

    In September 1945, Ed reported for active duty, this time as a member of the Army Air Corps.  He remained in the military and completed 24 years of active duty.  He retired as a staff sergeant at age 62 in March 1981.  

    After his retirement Ed lived in North Chicago, Illinois.  He later resided in Kenosha, Wisconsin, with his wife, the former Doris Donahue, and daughter.  As Ed looked back on his life, he was amazed that he had lived so many years beyond the experiences of a 23 year old who had lived the life of a Japanese POW. 

    Edward Martel passed away on August 14, 2008.  He was buried at Sunset Ridge Memorial Park in Kenosha, Wisconsin.


 

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