| Pfc. James L.
Manogue was born in 1914 in Johnstown, Wisconsin,
to James &Ellen Manogue and was raised in
Milton, Wisconsin. He was one of the four
children. He went to school in Milton and
attended Milton Union High School but left school
to help his father on the family farm.
In Janesville, Jim joined the 32nd Tank Company
of the Wisconsin National Guard about a month
before the company was called to federal duty in
the fall of 1940. He did this
since the draft act had just been passed, and he
wanted to fulfill his military obligation.
The tank company left Janesville on November 28,
1940, and arrived at Fort Knox, Kentucky, late
The tank company was
now A Company, 192nd Tank Battalion. A
typical day for the soldiers started in 6:15
with reveille, but most of the soldiers were up
before this since they wanted to wash and
dress. Breakfast was from 7:00 to 8:00
A.M., followed by calisthenics at 8:00 to
8:30. Afterwards, the tankers went to
various schools within the company. The
classes consisted of .30 and .50 caliber machine
guns, pistol, map reading, care of personal
equipment, military courtesy, and training in
At 11:30 the soldiers
stopped what they were doing and cleaned up for
mess which was from noon to 1:00 P.M.
Afterwards, they attended the various schools
which they had been assigned to on January 13th,
such as: mechanics, tank driving, radio
operating. At 4:30, the soldiers
called it a day and returned to their barracks
and put on dress uniforms and at five held
retreat and followed by dinner at 5:30.
After dinner, they were off duty and lights were
out at 9:00 P.M., but they did not have to turn
in until 10:00 when Taps was played.
On January 13th, each member of the company was
assigned to a specific school for training.
In the late summer of 1941, the 192nd Tank
Battalion took part in maneuvers in
Louisiana. After the maneuvers, the
battalion was ordered to Camp Polk, Louisiana,
and informed it was being sent overseas as part
of Operation PLUM. Within hours, many of
the men had figured out that "PLUM" stood for
Philippines, Luzon, Manila.
Jim received a ten day furlough home to say his
goodbyes. He returned to Camp Polk,
Louisiana, and from there left for the west
coast by train for San Francisco,
California, where they were ferried to Ft.
McDowell on Angel Island. On the island,
they received inoculations and physicals.
Those members of the battalion who were found to
have treatable medical conditions remained
behind on the island and scheduled to rejoin the
battalion at a later date. Some men were
The 192nd was
boarded onto the U.S. A. T. Hugh L.
Scott and sailed on Monday, October
27th. During this part of the trip, many
of the tankers suffered from seasickness.
Once they recovered, they spent their time
breaking down machine guns, cleaning weapons,
and doing KP. The ship arrived at
Honolulu, Hawaii, on Sunday, November 2nd and
had a two day layover, so the soldiers were
given shore leave so they could see the island.
On Wednesday, November
5th, the ship sailed for Guam but took a
southerly route away from the main shipping
lanes. It was at this time it was joined
by, the heavy cruiser, the U.S.S.
Louisville and, another transport,
the S. S. Calvin Coolidge.
Sunday night, November 9th, the soldiers went to
bed and when they awoke the next morning, it was
Tuesday, November 11th. During the night,
while they slept, the ships had crossed the
International Date Line.
It was during this part
of the voyage, on Saturday, November 15th, smoke
from an unknown ship was seen on the
horizon. The Louisville revved up its
engines, its bow came out of the water, and it
shot off in the direction of the smoke. It
turned out the smoke was from a ship that
belonged to a friendly country. During this part
of the voyage, smoke from an unknown ship was
seen on the horizon. The cruiser that was
escorting the two transports revved up its
engines, its bow came out of the water, and it
took off in the direction of the smoke. It
turned out that the unknown ship was from a
When they arrived at
Guam on Sunday, November 16th, the ships took on
water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables before
sailing for Manila the next day. At one
point, the ships passed an island at night and
did so in total blackout. This for many of
the soldiers was a sign that they were being
sent into harm's way. The ships entered
Manila Bay, at 8:00 A.M., on Thursday, November
20th, and docked at Pier 7 later that
morning. At 3:00 P.M., most of the
soldiers were taken by bus to Ft.
Stotsenburg. Those who drove trucks drove
them to the fort, while the maintenance section
remained behind at the pier to unload the tanks.
At the fort, they were
greeted by Colonel Edward King, who apologized
that they had to live in tents along the main
road between the fort and Clark Airfield.
He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving
Dinner before he went to have his own.
Ironically, November 20th was the date that the
National Guard members of the battalion had
expected to be released from federal service.
The members of the
battalion pitched the tents in an open field
halfway between the Clark Field Administration
Building and Fort Stotsenburg. The tents
were set up in two rows and five men were
assigned to each tent. There were two
supply tents and meals were provided by food
trucks stationed at the end of the rows of
next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove
cosmoline from their weapons. The grease
was put on the weapons to protect them from rust
while at sea. They also loaded ammunition
belts and did tank maintenance as they readied
their tanks to take part in maneuvers.
On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the
perimeter of Clark Field to guard against
Japanese paratroopers. From this time on,
two tank crew members remained with each tank at
all times and received their meals from food
The morning of
December 8, 1941, Capt Walter Write informed his
company of the Japanese attack on Pearl
Harbor. The tankers took their position
around the perimeter of the airfield. At
8:30, the American planes took off and filled
the sky. They landed at noon and lined up
near the mess hall while the pilots went to
were eating lunch when a formation of 54 planes
was spotted approaching the airfield from the
north. The tankers believed the planes
were American. As they watched, raindrops fell
from the planes. When bombs exploded on
the runways, they knew the planes were Japanese.
Four days after the
attack, on December 12th, the company was sent
to the Barrio of Dau so it could prevent
sabotage of a highway and railroad. From
there, the company was sent to join the other
companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno
On December 23rd and
24th, the company was in the area of Urdaneta,
where the tankers lost the company commander,
Capt. Walter Write. After he was buried,
the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno
River. As they did this, they ran into
Japanese resistance early in the evening
but successfully crossed the river in the
On December 25th, the
tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of
the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the
tanks of the 194th holding the line on the
Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks
held the position until 5:30 in the morning on
The 192nd, and part of
the 194th, fell back to form a new defensive
line the night of December 27th and 28th.
From there they fell back to the south bank of
the BamBan River which they were suppose to hold
for as long as possible. The tanks were at
Santo Tomas near Cabanatuan on December 28th and
29th serving as a rear guard against the
A Company was sent, in
support of the 194th, to an area east of
Pampanga on December 30th. It was there
that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt.
William Read. That night, on a road east
of Zaragoza, the company was bivouacked for the
night and posted sentries. The sentries
heard a noise on the road and woke the other
tankers who grabbed Tommy-guns and manned the
tanks' machine guns. As they watched, a
Japanese bicycle battalion rode into their
bivouac. When the last bicycle passed the
tanks, the tankers opened up on them. When
they stopped firing, they had completely wiped
out the bicycle battalion. To leave the
area, the tankers drove their tanks over the
As the Filipino and American
forces fell back toward Bataan, A Company took
up a position near the south bank of the Gumain
River the night of December 31st and January
1st. Believing that the Filipino Army was
in front of them allowed the tankers to get some
sleep. It was that night that the Japanese
lunched an attack to cross the river.
A Company, on January
5th, while attached to the 194th Tank Battalion,
withdrew from the Guagua-Porac line. It
was evening and they believed they were in a
relatively safe place. Lt. Kenneth Bloomfield
told his men to get some sleep. Their
sleep was interrupted by the sound of a gun
shot. The tankers had no idea that they
were about to engage the Japanese who had
lunched a major offensive. In the bright
moonlight, the Japanese were easy to see.
In an attempt to cover themselves, they laid
down a smoke screen which blew back into
them. There was a great deal of confusion
and the battle lasted until 3:00 A.M., when the
Japanese broke off the attack. Within days
of this action, the company returned to the
command of the 192nd.
The night of
January 7th, A Company was awaiting orders to
cross the last bridge into Bataan over the Culis
Creek. The engineers were ready to blow up
the bridge, but the battalion's commanding
officer, Lt. Col. Ted Wickord, ordered the
engineers to wait until he had looked to see if
they were anywhere in sight. He found the
company, asleep in their tanks, because they had
not received the order to withdraw across the
bridge. After they had crossed, the bridge
The next day
the tanks received maintenance. It was the
first rest that the two tank battalions had
since December 24th.
On January 24th, the
tank battalions were ordered to cover all forces
withdrawing to the Pilar-Bigac Line which was
suppose to take place the night of January
24th-25th. The 192nd covered the withdraw in the
Abucay area. The battalions prevented the
Japanese from overrunning the position and
cutting off the withdrawing troops.
The morning of January
27th, a new battle line had been formed and all
units were suppose to be beyond it. That
morning, the tanks were still holding their
position six hours after they were suppose to
have withdrawn. While holding the
position, the tanks, with self-propelled mounts,
ambushed, at point blank range, three Japanese
units causing 50 percent casualties.
On January 28th, the
tank battalions were given the job of protecting
the beaches. The 192nd was assigned the
coast line from Paden Point to Limay along
Bataan's east coast. The Japanese later
admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches
prevented them from attempting landings.
They also took part in the Battle of the Pockets
and the Battle of the Points.
The pockets was an extremely
dangerous operation. When tanks were sent
into a pocket, they entered one tank at a
time. The next tank would not enter until
the tank that had been relieved exited the
To wipe out the Japanese,
two methods were employed. One had
three Filipino soldiers sitting on the back of
each tank. When the tank passed over a
foxhole the soldiers each dropped a hand grenade
into the foxhole. Being that the ordnance
was from WWI, one of the three hand grenades
The second method was
to park the tank with one tread over
foxhole. The crew would give power to the
other track causing the tank to spin and dig its
way into the ground.
The soldiers were hungry and began to eat
everything they could get their hands on to
eat. The Carabao were tough but if they
were cooked long enough they could be
eaten. They also began to eat horse meat
provided by the 26th U. S. Cavalry. To
make things worse, the soldiers' rations were
cut in half again on March 1, 1942. This
meant that they only ate two meals a
The Japanese also were
dropping surrender leaflets with a scantly clad
blond on them. The Japanese would have
been more successful at getting the Americans to
surrender if the picture had been hamburger,
since the men were so hungry that they most
likely would have surrendered for a good meal.
During the Battle of
the Points, on March 2nd and 3rd, the tanks were
sent in to wipe out Japanese troops that had
broken through the main defensive line and than
trapped behind the line after the Filipino and
American troops pushed the Japanese back toward
the sea and wiped them out.
The company's last bivouac
area was about twelve kilometers north of Mariveles
and looking out on the China Sea. By this
point, the tankers knew that there was no help
on the way. Many had listened to Secretary
of War Harry L. Stimson on short wave.
When asked about the Philippines, he said,
"There are times when men must die."
The soldiers cursed in response because they
knew that the Philippines had already been lost.
On April 4, 1942, the
Japanese launched a attack supported by
artillery and aircraft. A large force of
Japanese troops came over Mount Samat and
descended down the south face of the
volcano. This attack wiped out two
divisions of defenders and left a large area of
the defensive line open to the Japanese.
When General King saw that the situation was
hopeless, he initiated surrender talks with the
Jim and most of the company
became Prisoners Of War on April 9th. At
6:45 in the morning, they received the order
"crash" and destroyed their tanks and waited for
the Japanese to make contact with them.
When they did, they ordered the Prisoners of War
It was from the southern tip of Bataan that Jim
started what is now called the death march
With Jim on the march, was Phil Parish of A
Company. At Cabcaban, Jim and the
other POWs had to run in front of Japanese
artillery that was firing at Corregidor.
Corregidor had begun to zero in on the Japanese
guns about the time Jim and Phil got
there. The POWs were forced to run past
the guns as shells exploded around them.
At Lamao, Jim and the other POWs were held in a
pen where other POWs had already been
held. They were forced to sleep in the
waste of these previous occupants. Since
many of the men were sick, they added to the
About this time, the POWs received food.
Jim, Phil and another prisoner combined their
rice and other food they had. The three
men had the best meal that they had had in days.
The prisoners were forced to march into the
night. In one barrio, they could not see
but could smell the bodies of the dead.
The smell made the POWs sick.
At San Fernando, Jim was forced into a
boxcar. The prisoners were packed in so
tightly that those who died remained standing
until the living disembarked at Capas. Jim
and Phil then walked the last few miles to Camp
O'Donnell on October 6, 1942. This date
conflicts with the date on his cross.
As a Prisoner Of War at Camp O'Donnell. It
is not known if he went out on a work detail
while there. But it appears that Jim
was considered too ill to be transferred to
Cabanatuan when the new camp opened. The
diary kept by Lt. Leroy Scoville states that
Pvt. James Manogue died at Camp O'Donnell.
He was buried in Section P, Row 7, Grave 10 in
the camp cemetery. He was the second
to the last POW to die at the camp.
On January 30, 1945, Sgt. Dale Lawton was
liberated from Cabanatuan. When he
returned home to Janesville, he informed the
Manogue family that Jim had died while a
POW. This was the first word that the
family had received which confirmed a letter
that the family had previously received about
The following is a letter written by Chaplain
Frank L.Tiffany to the Manogue family The letter
was written at Camp O'Donnell. It was not found
until three years after it had been written.
Dear Mr. Manogue:
was my pleasure to have known Pvt. James Manogue
of the 192nd Tank Battalion, but my very sad
duty to write of his decease. You
undoubtedly would have long ago have received
the official notice through military channels,
but I just felt like adding this more personal
word. The information given to me and I
did not think to ask James before his decease,
does not state the relationship of the next of
kin to the deceased, but if it be father, uncle
or what, I am sure the memory of James will be
Along with my assignment of hospital chaplain, I
also went out with General Weaver's tank
battalions as part-time duty so became,
spiritually at least, close to the men of the
units. When our hospital of above name (
General Hospital No.1, Camp O'Donnell, P. I.)
came here July 3, I soon became acquainted with
James Manogue. At first, he seemed to
revive greatly. Previously to our coming
the hospital facilities were inadequate.
But about a month before he died, we began to
see that his chances of ultimate recovery were
slight. Believe me, I did everything I
possibly could personally in the way of getting
him extra food, a toothbrush, etc. to help him
along. But the ravages of the disease and
malnutrition had run to far. His diagnosis
was beriberi. The Catholic chaplain, who
will undoubtedly write to you, saw to his last
rites according to his church. He was
buried in the cemetery, a beautiful location,
plot P, row 7, grave 10. I should have
said that after our coming here to our hospital,
the patients were given every possible medical
and professional aid.
Please be assured, Mr. Manogue, that not only my
own but the sincere sympathies of every
remaining member of the 192nd, including General
Weaver, as well as the hospital attendants who
knew James personally, go out to you and to
every member of the family and friends of this
young soldier. May God abundantly bless
and comfort you in this, your hour of
church is the Prresbyterian, U.S.A. If
there is any service I can render you after the
war, just ask any minister of that church for my
location, and I will be glad to hear from
you. I have been through Wisconsin in many
times and know what a beautiful state it
is. Jay W. Tiffany, is an engineer on the
Hiawatha from Minneapolis to La Crosse, Wis.,
and he tells me much of the country. My
last location before being called to active duty
was Sandpoint, Idaho.
Frank L. Tiffany
(Captain U.S. Army)
After the war, the remains of Pfc. James L.
Manogue were reburied at the American Military
Cemetery outside of Manila.
Chaplain Frank L. Tiffany never had the
opportunity to fulfill his promise to meet with
the members of the Manogue family. He died
when the Arisan Maru, a
Japanese transport that was carrying POWs, was
sunk by an American submarine on Tuesday,
October 24, 1944.
Pfc. James L. Manogue was reported to have died
on October 1, 1942, from beriberi at Camp
O'Donnell POW Camp.