Pvt. Thomas Edward Hurtt

    Pvt. Thomas E. Hurtt was born in Kemper County, Mississippi, on October 18, 1912, to William J. & Alice Hurtt.  His mother died and his father remarried.  He had one brother, two half-brothers, and five half-sisters.  He was joined the army, in September 1939, and did his basic training at Fort Benning, Georgia. He into the reenlisted on May 7, 1941, and was assigned to the 753rd Tank Battalion.

     In September 1941, the 753rd was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana.  It was there that Thomas volunteered to become a member of the 192nd Tank Battalion.  The battalion had received orders for overseas duty, and he replaced a National Guardsman who had been released from federal service.  He was assigned to A Company.
    The battalion traveled by train to San Francisco.  By ferry, they were taken to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, they received inoculations and physicals.  Those members of the battalion who were found to have treatable medical conditions remained behind on the island.  They were scheduled to join the battalion at a later date.
The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.S. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On November 5th, the ships sailed for Guam.   At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th.  They docked at Pier 7 and the soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg. 
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King.  The general apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own. 
Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.
For the next seventeen days the tankers worked to remove cosmoline from their weapons.  The grease was put on the weapons to protect them from rust while at sea.  They also loaded ammunition belts and did tank maintenance as they readied their tanks to take part in maneuvers.
    On December 1st, the tankers were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  From this time on, two tank crew members remained with each tank at all times.
   The morning of December 8, 1942, the tankers were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just hours earlier.  They returned to their tanks around the airfield.
    At 12:45 in the afternoon, the tankers were at food trucks receiving lunch when they spotted planes approaching the airfield from the north.  Many of the men counted 54 planes in a "V" formation and commented that they thought they were American.  When bombs began exploding on the runways, the tankers knew the planes were Japanese.
    The men ran to their tanks or took cover wherever they could.  They could do little more than watch since their weapons were not meant to fight planes. 

    Four days after the attack on December 12th, the company was sent to the Barrio of Dau so it would be close to a highway and railroad.  From there, the company was sent to join the other companies of the 192nd just south of the Agno River.  There, the battalion, with A Company, 194th held the position so other units could cross the river.
    On December 23rd and 24th, the company was in the area of Urdaneta.  It was there, that the tankers lost the company commander, Capt. Walter Write.  After he was buried, the tankers made an end run to get south of Agno River.  As they did this, they ran into Japanese resistance early in the evening. They successfully crossed at the river in the Bayambang Province.
    On December 25th, the tanks of the battalion held the southern bank of the Agno River from Carmen to Tayung, with the tanks of the 194th holding the line on the Carmen-Alcala-Bautista Road. The tanks held the position until 5:30 in the morning on December 27th.

   A Company was sent, in support of the 194th, to an area east of Pampanga.  It was there that they lost a tank platoon commander, Lt. William Reed.  The company returned to the 192nd on January 8, 1942. 
    As American and Filipino forces entered Bataan, the company waited for orders to move.  Receiving none, many of the tankers went to sleep.  Col. Ted Wickord went looking for the company when they did not cross the bridge,
since the engineers wanted to blow the bridge.  Wickord found the company and woke them.  A Company was the last American unit to enter Bataan.  After they did, the bridge was blown by the engineers.       
    On January 28th, the tank battalions were given the job of protecting the beaches.  The 192nd was assigned the coast line from Paden Point to Limay along Bataan's east coast.  The Japanese later admitted that the tanks guarding the beaches prevented them from attempting landings.  They also took part in the Battle of the Pockets and the Battle of the Points.

   Thomas spent the next four months fighting to slow the Japanese conquest of the Philippines.  One night, A Company had bivouacked on both sides of a road.  At some point, their sentries woke the rest of the company because they heard troops approaching.  The tankers grabbed their machine guns and waited.  Using the tanks for protection, they watched as a Japanese bicycle battalion road right into the middle of their bivouac.

    The members of the company opened up on the Japanese with everything they had.  There were flashes of light, screaming, and the sound of the wounded crying for help.  When A Company ceased firing, they had completely wiped out the bicycle battalion.

    On April 9, 1942, Thomas became a Prisoner of War.  He took part in the death march and was held at Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan.  During his time as a POW, he was sent to Batangas, Batangas, to build runways at an airfield.
   Thomas was returned to Cabanatuan when the detail ended and remained there for the rest of his time as a POW in the Philippines.  According to medical records kept at Cabanatuan, he was sent to Building 8 on September 4, 1944.  When he was discharged is not known.

    As American forces approached the Philippines, the Japanese began sending large numbers of POWs to other parts of the empire.  In early October, he was sent to Manila for shipment to Japan.  When Thomas' group of POWs arrived at the Port Area of Manila, on October 10, 1944, they were boarded onto the Arisan Maru.  The POWs had been scheduled to be boarded onto the Hokusen Maru, but since one of the POW groups, in his detachment, had not arrived on time, and the ship was ready to sail, the Japanese switched the POW groups and the Hokusen Maru sailed.  

    Thomas' POW group was crammed into the first hold of the ship.  They were packed in so tightly that they could not move.  Those who used the wooden bunks along the hull found that once they laid down, the bunks were so close together that they could not sit up in them. Five men died in the hold in the first twenty-four hours.  

    On October 10, 1944, the ship sailed.  Instead of heading toward Formosa, it headed south to Palawan Island.  There, the ship dropped anchor in a cove.  This was done to avoid American planes.  While it was there, the Port of Manila were bombed by American planes.

    It was during this time that the POWs figured out how to turn the hold's ventilation fans by wiring them into the ship's lighting system.  Although the Japanese had removed the lights, they had not turned off the power.  For two days conditions in the hold improved because the POWs had fresh air.  When the Japanese discovered what the POWs had done, they cut the power to the hold.

    The Japanese attempted to improve the conditions in the hold by moving 800 POWs to one of the other holds.  The POWs were put in this hold on top of the coal that was already in it.

    Returning to Manila on October 21st, the Arisan Maru waited in the harbor while the Japanese formed a convoy.  During this time, the prisoners remained in the holds of the ship.  On October 23rd, the Arisan Maru joined a convoy of twelve ships bound for Formosa.  The ship proceeded toward Formosa the evening of Tuesday, October 24, 1944.  

    It was almost dinner and twenty POWs were on deck cooking dinner.  The ship was in the Bashi Channel of the South China Sea.  According to the survivors, the Japanese ran to the bow of the ship and watched a torpedo pass in front of the ship.  A second torpedo missed the stern of the ship.  Two more torpedoes hit the ship amidships.  The ship immediately stopped in its tracks.

    The Japanese abandoned ship, but cut the rope ladders to the ship's holds before they left.  A few POWs managed to get out of the second hold and reattached the rope ladders and dropped them into the holds to the other POWs.  

    Those POWs who could swim attempted to escape the sinking ship by clinging to rafts, hold hatches, flotation belts, flotsam and jetsam.  Many of those who could not swim remained on the ship and gorged themselves with food from the ship's food locker.

    Some POWs attempted to swim to nearby Japanese destroyers. They were shot at, clubbed, or pushed away with poles or clubbed.  The destroyers pulled away leaving the Americans to fend for themselves.

    After several hours, the ship split in two.  A few hours later it sunk.  According to the survivors, the cries for help grew fainter and fainter.  Then there was silence.

    Pvt. Thomas E. Hurtt died in the sinking of the Arisan Maru in the South China Sea on October 24, 1944.  Since he was lost at sea, his name appears on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside Manila.



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