Duff

 


Sgt. David H. Duff


    Sgt. David Duff was born on December 3, 1919, in Franklin County, Ohio, to David & Edith Duff.  With his two sisters and brother, he lived at 672 Livingston Avenue in Columbus, Ohio.  He left school after his third year of high school and went to work as a machinist.
    David was inducted into the U.S. Army on January 22, 1941, at Fort Hayes in Columbus, Ohio.  He was sent to Ft. Knox, Kentucky, for basic training and was assigned to C Company, 192nd Tank Battalion.  During his time with the company he was promoted from private, to private first class, and corporal. 

    
In the late summer of 1941, the 192nd was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, to take part in maneuvers.  During the maneuvers, the Red Army, which the 192nd was part of, broke through the lines of the Blue Army.  As they approached the headquarters of the Blue Army, which was under the command of General George Patton, the maneuvers were suddenly canceled.  The 192nd was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk instead of returning to Ft. Knox. None of the members had any idea why this order was given.
    On the side of a hill at Camp Polk, the tankers learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Within hours many men had figured out that "PLUM" stood for Philippines, Luzon, Manila.  Those men 29 years old or older were given the opportunity to resign from federal service.  Replacements for the men came from the 753rd Tank Battalion which had been sent to Camp Polk from Ft. Benning, Georgia.   The 192nd also received the battalion's tanks and half-tracks.
    Over different train routes, the battalion was sent to San Francisco.  Once there, they were taken by ferry to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  At the fort, they received physicals and inoculated against tropical diseases.  Those men with minor health issues were held back and scheduled to rejoin the battalion in the Philippines.
   

    The 192nd was boarded onto the U.S.A.T. Hugh L. Scott and sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th, for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived at Honolulu on Sunday, November 2nd.  The soldiers were given leaves so they could see the island.  On Tuesday, November 4th, the ships sailed for Guam.  At one point, the ships passed an island at night.  While they passed the island, they did so in total blackout.  This for many of the soldiers was a sign that they were being sent into harm's way.  When they arrived at Guam, the ships took on water, bananas, coconuts, and vegetables.  The ships sailed the same day for Manila and entered Manila Bay on Thursday, November 20th and docked at Pier 7.  Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guardsmen were scheduled to be released from federal service.  The soldiers were taken by bus to Ft. Stotsenburg.
    At the fort, they were greeted by Gen. Edward King.  The general apologized that the men had to live in tents along the main road between the fort and Clark Airfield.  He made sure that they all received Thanksgiving Dinner before he went to have his own. 
Ironically, November 20th was the date that the National Guard members of the battalion had expected to be released from federal service.

    The tanks were ordered to the perimeter of the Clark Airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.  That morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.  When they looked up that morning, the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch. 
   
   Around 12:45 in the afternoon, the tankers noticed planes approaching the airfield.  When bombs began exploding around them, they knew the planes were Japanese.  Besides their .50 caliber machine guns, they had few weapons to use against the planes.  Most took cover and waited out the attack.  After it ended, they saw the destruction done by the bombs.
    The 192nd remained at Clark Field for about a week before they were ordered to the barrio of Dau so it would be near a road and railroad.  For the next four months, the tankers held positions so that the other units could disengage and form a defensive line.
   
    At Gumain River, the tank companies formed a defensive line along the south bank of the river.  When the Japanese attacked the position at night, they were easy to see since they were wearing white t-shirts.  It was there the tankers noted that the Japanese soldiers were high on drugs when they attacked.  Among the dead Japanese, the tankers found the hypodermic needles and syringes.   The tankers were able to hold up the Japanese for several weeks.
    The tankers soon found themselves in given the job of holding a defensive line so that the other troops could disengage and form a new defensive line further south.  They repeated this action over and over.  It was during this time that David was promoted to sergeant.
   
During the Battle of the Points the tanks were sent in to wipe out Japanese troops that had broken through the main defensive line and than trapped behind the line after the Filipino and American troops pushed the Japanese back.  According to members of the battalion they resorted two ways to wipe out the Japanese.
    The first method was to have three Filipino soldiers sit on the back of the tanks with sacks of hand grenades.  When the Japanese dove back into their foxholes, the tank would go over it and the soldiers would drop three hand grenades into the foxhole.  Since the ordnance was from World War I, one out of three hand grenades would explode.
    About 6:45 in the morning of April 9, 1942, the tankers received the order "crash."  They destroyed their tanks and waited for the Japanese to make contact with them.  When they did, the Americans officially became Prisoners of War.  Having heard a rumor that the Japanese were looking for them, the tankers got rid of anything that indicated that they were tankers.  They made their way, as a company, to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan.  There, they started what they simply referred to as "the march."
    From Mariveles, the POWs made there way north to San Fernando.  They received little food and almost no water.  At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into a bull pin.  In one corner was a slit trench that was used as a washroom.  The surface moved from the maggots that covered it.
    The Japanese ordered the POWs to form detachments of 100 men.  They were marched to the train station and put into small wooden boxcars that were used to haul sugarcane.  The cars could hold forty men or eight horses and were known as "Forty or Eights."  The Japanese packed 100 men into each car.  Those who died remained standing until the living left the cars at Capas.  From there, they walked the last miles to Camp O'Donnell.
    Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army training base that the Japanese put into use as a POW camp.  There was one water faucet for the entire camp.  As many as fifty POWs died each day.  Disease spread quickly among the POWs.  To get out of the camp, POWs volunteered to go out on work details.  It is not known if David went out on a work detail.  The Japanese finally acknowledged that they had to do something to lower the death rate, so they opened a new POW camp at Cabanatuan.
    As a POW, David was held at Cabanatuan.  While he was a POW in the camp he came down with cerebral malaraia and was admitted to the camp hospital on July 5, 1942. According to the records kept by the medical staff.  Sgt. David Duff died of dysentery on Tuesday, September 8, 1942, at approximately 12:30 P.M.  He was buried in the camp cemetery in a grave with other POWs.
    After the war, the David's remains and those of four other POWs could not be positively identified.  At the request of the families, the remains of the POWs were returned to the United States.  So that all the families would have approximately the same distance to travel to the grave, they were buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in Saint Louis, Missouri, in Section 78, Site 989-990, on February 15, 1950.


 

 

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