Courtney

Pfc. Daniel Joseph Courtney


    Pfc. Daniel J. Courtney was the son of Donald E. & Eva Courtney. He was born on October 23, 1917, in Janesville, Wisconsin, to Edward & Eva Courtney.  As a child, with his two brothers and four sisters, he grew up at 518 South Pearl Street.  He was known as "Dannie" to his family and friends.  One of his sisters was married to 1st Lt. John F. A. Bushaw who would assumed commander of A Company in the Philippines. When he was called to federal duty, Dannie was working crushing rocks for a park project.

    Knowing it was just a matter of time before he would be drafted into the army, Dannie joined the Wisconsin National Guard's 32nd Tank Company which was headquartered in an armory in Janesville.  On November 2, 1940, the tank company was federalized and sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky.

    In January 1941, Dannie was reassigned to Headquarters Company when it was formed with members of the four letter companies of the battalion.  On April 1, 1941, Dannie married Mary Liptow at St. Mary's Catholic Church in Janesville.  The couple would have a son within a year.

    The battalion next was sent to Camp Polk, Louisiana, where they took part in the Louisiana maneuvers of 1941.  After the maneuvers, the battalion was ordered to remain behind at Camp Polk.  None of the members of the battalion had any idea why they were there.  On the side of a hill, the members learned they were being sent overseas as part of Operation PLUM.  Within hours, many men had figured out they were being sent to the Philippine Islands.
   
Dannie returned home to say their goodbyes to friends and family.  Returning to Camp Polk, the battalion was sent over different train routes for San Francisco.  There, they were transported by boat to Angel Island,  It was from this army base that the 192nd left the United States for the Philippine Islands. 
    From Camp Polk, the battalion traveled west over four different train routes.  Arriving in San Francisco, the soldiers were ferried to Ft. McDowell on Angel Island.  On the island, the soldiers were given physicals and inoculated for tropical diseases. Those with health issues were released from service and replaced.
  

    The battalion sailed from San Francisco on Monday, October 27th for Hawaii as part of a three ship convoy.  They arrived in Hawaii on Sunday, November 2nd, and had a layover.  The soldiers received passes and allowed to explore the islands.  They sailed again on October 29th for Guam.  When the ships arrived at Guam, they took on bananas, vegetables, coconuts, and water.  The soldiers remained on ship since the convoy was sailing the next day. About 8:00 in the morning on November 20th, the ships arrived at Manila Bay.  After arriving at Manila, it was three or four hours before they disembarked.  Most of the battalion boarded trucks and rode to Ft. Stotsenburg north of Manila.
    At the fort, the tankers were met by General Edward King.  King welcomed them and made sure that they had what they needed.  He also was apologetic that there were no barracks for the tankers and that they had to love in tents.  The fact was he had not learned of their arrival until days before they arrived.
    For the next seventeen days the tankers spent much of their time removing cosmoline from their weapons.  They also spent a large amount of time loading ammunition belts.  The plan was for them, with the 194th Tank Battalion, to take part in maneuvers.
    The morning of December 8th, the officers of the battalions met and were informed of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor hours earlier.  The 192nd letter companies were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Airfield. 
    All morning long, the sky was filled with American planes.  At noon, all the planes landed and the pilots went to lunch.  At 12:45 planes approached the airfield from the north.  The tankers on duty at the airfield counted 54 planes.  When bombs began exploding, the men knew the planes were Japanese.  After the attack the 192nd remained at Ft. Stotsenburg for almost two weeks.  They were than sent to the Lingayen Gulf area where the Japanese had landed.

    Dannie spent the next four months attempting to keep the tank platoons supplied with ammunition and gasoline.  On April 9, 1942, Dannie, with the rest of HQ Company, were informed by their commanding officer, Capt. Fred Bruni, of the American surrender. He told the soldiers to destroy their weapons and any supplies that could be used by the Japanese.  The only thing they were told not to destroy were the company's trucks.  He then had a "last supper" with his men.  Bruni told the men that it was now each man for himself.

    The men waited in their bivouac for two days.  On the second day a Japanese officer and soldiers entered the camp and ordered  the Americans to move.  How they were dressed is how they left the camp. Dannie was now a Prisoner of War.

    The Americans, with their possessions, went out onto the road that ran in front of their encampment.  Once on the road, the soldiers were ordered to kneel along the sides of the road.  They were told to put their possessions in front of them.  As they knelt, the Japanese soldiers, who were passing them, went through their possessions and took whatever they wanted from the Americans.

    Dannie and his company boarded their trucks and drove to Mariveles.  From there, they walked to Mariveles Airfield and sat and waited.  As they sat, the POWs noticed a line of Japanese soldiers forming across from them.  They soon realized that this was a firing squad and the Japanese were going to kill them.

    As they sat watching and waiting to see what the Japanese intended to do, a Japanese officer pulled up in a car in front of the Japanese soldiers.  He got out of the car and spoke to the sergeant in charge of the detail.  The officer got back in the car and drove off.  The Japanese sergeant ordered the soldiers to lower their guns.

    Later in the day, Dannie's group of POWs was moved to a school yard in Mariveles. The POWs were left sitting in the sun for hours.  The Japanese did not feed them or give them water.  Behind the POWs were four Japanese artillery pieces which began firing on Corregidor and Ft. Drum.  These two islands had not surrendered.  Shells from these two American forts began landing among the POWs.  The POWs could do little since they had no place to hide.  Some POWs were killed by incoming American shells.  One group that tried to hide in a small brick building died when it took a direct hit.  The American guns did succeed in knocking out three of the four Japanese guns.

    The POWs were ordered to move again by the Japanese.  Dannie and the other men had no idea that they had started what became known as the death march.  During the march he received no water and little food.  At San Fernando, he was put into a small wooden boxcar and taken to Capas.  The cars could hold forty men or eight horses.  The Japanese packed 100 men into each car.  Those who died remained standing until the living climbed out of the car.  From Capas, Dannie walked the last ten miles to Camp O' Donnell.

    Dannie was held as a POW at Camp O'Donnell and Cabanatuan in the Philippines.  He was transported to Japan on the Coral Maru.  The ship was also known as the Taga Maru.  The ship sailed on September 19, 1943. Unlike many other POWs, Dannie's experience on the ship was not that bad.  The ship was not crowded and the prisoners were given adequate food.  The ship arrived at Moji, Japan, on October 8, 1943.

    Dannie was sent to Hirohata 12-B.  The prisoners in the camp worked in the Seitetsu Steel Mill.  At the camp, Dannie ran a coal shovel that fired a boiler.  Working with coal without eye protection resulted in Dannie having vision problems.

    In September, 1945, Dannie and the other POWs were liberated by American troops.  He was sent to Saipan and then Hawaii.  He was flown by plane to the United States.

    Dannie returned to Janesville and married Mary M. Schumacher.  With his wife, raised a family of seven children.  One son, Donnie, drowned in 1962.  After he returned to Janesville, Dannie worked at the General Motors manufacturing plant in Janesville.

    Daniel J. Courtney passed away on March 23, 1974, and was buried at Mount Olivet Cemetery in Janesville, Wisconsin, next to his son.


 

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