Sgt. Vincent Russell Brown
| Sgt. Vincent R.
Brown was born in 1917 in Greene County, Ohio.
He was the son of Blaine Brown & Marie
Condon-Brown. With his two sisters, he grew up
on Route 20 in Mentor Township, Lake County,
Ohio. He was known as "Russell" to his
family. When he was inducted into the U. S.
Army on March 1, 1941, in Cleveland, Ohio, he was
working in a rubber processing factory.
Vincent was sent to Fort Knox, Kentucky, for basic training. It was at that time that he was assigned to C Company, 192nd Tank Company. The tank company had originated as an Ohio National Guard Tank Company from Port Clinton. He was nicknamed, "Brownie" by the other members of the company.
In August 1941, the 192nd took part in maneuvers
in Louisiana. It was after the maneuvers,
the battalion was ordered to Camp Plk instead of
returning to Ft. Knox. It was on the side of
a hill, at Camp Polk, that the battalion learned
it was being sent overseas. Many of the
battalion's members received leaves to say their
goodbyes to family and friends. Those too
old to go overseas were allowed to resign from
federal service and replaced.
Over different train routes the companies of the
battalion made their way to San Francisco.
Once their, they were ferried to Angel Island were
given inoculations and physicals. Men with
medical conditions were held back and scheduled to
rejoin the battalion at a later date. Other
men were simply replaced.
On December 1st, the tanks were ordered to the perimeter of Clark Field to guard against paratroopers. At all times, two members of each tank crew remained with the tanks. The morning of December 8, 1941, the tankers were told of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor just ten hours earlier. They were ordered to the perimeter of the airfield to guard against Japanese paratroopers.
Around 12:45 in the afternoon, planes approached the airfield from the north. Vincent and the other tankers watched and counted them. They believed the planes were American until bombs began exploding. It was than that they knew the planes were Japanese.
The tank battalion received
that it was to
B and C
ran low on
enough for one
to support the
On December 31, 1941, Company was sent out reconnaissance patrols north of the town of Baluiag. The patrols ran into Japanese patrols, which told the Americans that the Japanese were on their way. Knowing that the railroad bridge was the only way into the town and to cross the river, Lt. Gentry set up his defenses in view of the bridge and the rice patty it crossed.
Early on the morning of the 31st, the Japanese began moving troops and across the bridge. The engineers came next and put down planking for tanks. A little before noon Japanese tanks began crossing the bridge.
Later that day, the Japanese had assembled a large number of troops in the rice field on the northern edge of the town. One platoon of tanks under the command of 2nd Lt. Marshall Kennady were to the southeast of the bridge. Gentry's tanks were to the south of the bridge in huts, while third platoon commanded by Capt Harold Collins was to the south on the road leading out of Baluiag. 2nd Lt. Everett Preston had been sent south to find a bridge to cross to attack the Japanese from behind.
Major Morley came riding in his jeep into Baluiag. He stopped in front of a hut and was spotted by the Japanese who had lookouts in the town's church's steeple. The guard became very excited so Morley, not wanting to give away the tanks positions, got into his jeep and drove off. Bill had told him that his tanks would hold their fire until he was safely out of the village.
When Gentry felt the Morley was out of danger, he ordered his tanks to open up on the Japanese tanks at the end of the bridge. The tanks then came smashing through the huts' walls and drove the Japanese in the direction of Lt. Marshall Kennady's tanks. Kennady had been radioed and was waiting.
Kennady's platoon held its fire until the Japanese were in view of his platoon and then joined in the hunt. The Americans chased the tanks up and down the streets of the village, through buildings and under them. By the time Bill's unit was ordered to disengage from the enemy, they had knocked out at least eight enemy tanks.
During the withdraw into the peninsula, the company
was mined and
about to be
The 192nd held
so that the
frog past it
and then cover
192nd was the
unit to enter
For the next for months, the tanks fought to slow the Japanese conquest of the Philippines. On April 9th, they received word of the surrender the next day. The tankers circled their tanks and destroyed them by firing armor piecing shells into their engines, opening their gasoline cocks and dropping grenades into each tank. The next day they became Prisoners of War.
Vincent and his company made its way to Mariveles at the southern tip of Bataan. There, they started the death march. Since most of the POWs were already sick with dysentery or malaria, it was more of a trudge than a march. They received little food and water during the march.
At San Fernando, the POWs were packed into small wooden boxcars that could hold eight horses or forty men. Each car held 100 POWs. The POWs who died remained standing since there was no room for them to fall down. When the train reached Capas, the living left the cars and walked the last ten miles to Camp O'Donnell.
Camp O'Donnell was an unfinished Filipino Army Training Camp. It had one water faucet for the entire camp. The Japanese pressed it into service as a POW camp. Conditions in the camp were so bad that as many as 50 POWs died each day. Men died standing in line for a drink of water.
The situation in the camp was so bad that the Japanese opened a new camp at Cabanatuan. Vincent spent time in this camp. When the Japanese gave out red cross packages, the situation improved for the POWs.
Vincent was selected for what became known Pasay
School Detail in August 1942. The POWs
on the detail were housed in a school at Pasay
School in eighteen rooms. Thirty POWs
were assigned to a room. The POWs were
used to extend and widen runways for the
Japanese Navy. The plans for this
expansion came from the American Army which
had drawn them up before the war. The
Japanese wanted a runway 500 yards wide and a
mile long going through hills and a swamp.
When Vincent's group of POWs arrived at the Port Area of Manila on Tuesday, October 10, 1944, they were boarded onto the Arisan Maru. They had been scheduled to be boarded onto the Hokusen Maru, but since one of the POW groups had not arrived on time to be boarded, Vincent's group was put on their ship. With him on the ship were the other members of C Company.
Vincent and 1802 other POWs were packed into the ship's number two hold. Along the sides of the hold were shelves that served as bunks. These bunks were so close together that a man could not lift himself up while laying down. Those standing also had no room to lie down. The latrines for the prisoners were eight five gallon cans. Since the POWs were packed into the hold so tightly, many of the POWs could not get near the cans. The floor of the hold was covered with human waste.
On October 11th, the ship set sail but took a southerly route away from Formosa. Within the first 48 hours, five POWs had died. The ship anchored in a cove off Palawan Island where it remained for ten days. The Japanese covered the hatch with a tarp. During the night, the POWs were in total darkness. This resulted in the ship missing an air attack by American planes, but the ship was attacked by American planes while in the cove.
Each day, each POW was given three ounces of water and two half mess kits of raw rice. Conditions in the hold were so bad, that the POWs began to develop heat blisters.
Although the Japanese had removed the lights in the hold, they had not turned off the power to the lights. Some of the prisoners were able to wire the ship's blowers into the light power lines. This allowed fresh air into the hold. The blowers were disconnected two days later when the Japanese discovered what had been done.
The Japanese realized that if they did not do something many of the POWs would die. To prevent this, they opened the ship's number two hold and transferred 600 POWs into it. At this point, one POW was shot while attempting to escape.
The Arisan Maru returned to Manila on October 20th. There, it joined a twelve ship convoy. On October 21st, the convoy left Manila and entered the South China Sea. The Japanese refused to mark POW ships with red crosses to indicate they were carrying POWs making them targets for American submarines. The POWs in the hold became so desperate that they prayed for the ship to be hit by torpedoes.
According to the survivors of the Arisan Maru, on Tuesday, October 24, 1944, about 5:00 pm, some of the POWs were on deck preparing dinner for the POWs in the ship's two holds. The ship was near, off the coast of China, in the Bashi Channel. Suddenly, sirens and other alarms were heard. The men inside the holds knew this meant that American submarines had been spotted and began to chant for the submarines to sink the ship.
The Japanese on deck ran to the bow of the ship. As the POWs watched, a torpedo passed in front of the bow of the ship. Moments later, the Japanese ran to the ship's stern and watched as a second torpedo passed behind the ship. There was a sudden jar and the ship stopped dead in the water. It had been hit by two torpedoes amidships in its third hold where there were no POWs. It is believed that the submarine that fired the torpedoes was the U.S.S Snook.
One of the Japanese guards aimed his machinegun and began firing at the POWs who were on deck. To escape, the POWs dove back into the holds. After they were in the holds, the Japanese put the hatch covers on the holds but did not tie them down.
As the Japanese abandoned ship, they cut the rope ladders into the ship's two holds, but since they had not tied down the hatch covers, some of the POWs in the second hold were able to climb out and reattached the ladders. They also dropped ropes down to the POWs in both holds.
The POWs were able to get onto the deck of the ship. At first, few POWs attempted to escape the ship. Many raided the ship's food lockers and ate their last meals.
A group of 30 POWs swam to a nearby Japanese ship, but when the Japanese realized they were POWs, they pushed them away with poles and hit them with clubs. The Japanese destroyers in the convoy deliberately pulled away from the POWs as they attempted to reach them.
As the ship got lower in the water, some of the POWs took to the water. These POWs attempted to escape the ship by clinging to rafts, hatch covers, flotsam and jetsam. Most of the POWs were still on deck even after it became apparent that the ship was sinking. At some point, the ship split in two. The exact time of the ship's sinking is not known since it took place after dark.
Five of the POWs found an abandoned lifeboat, but since they had no paddles, they could not maneuver it to help other POWs. According to the survivors, the Arisan Maru sank sometime after dark. As the night went on, the cries for help grew fewer until there was silence.
Sgt. Vincent R. Brown lost his life when the Arisan Maru was torpedoed in the South China Sea. Of the 1803 POWs on the ship, only nine survived the sinking. Eight of these men would survive the war. Since he was lost at sea, Sgt. Vincent R. Brown's name is inscribed on the Tablets of the Missing at the American Military Cemetery outside of Manila.